Determination of Normal and Variant Hemoglobin using Capillary Electrophoresis among Voluntary Blood Donors in North Central Nigeria: Implications on Blood Transfusion Services


Background: Voluntary non-remunerated blood donation is a strategy adopted by World Health Organization aimed at ensuring safety and adequacy of blood supply. Sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of hemoglobin disorders and therefore needs to adopt stringent measures in donor selection to ensure safety for the recipient of blood transfusion. This study aimed to analyze normal and variant hemoglobin among voluntary blood donors.

Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 100 prospective blood donors including 55 (55%) males and 45 (45%) females, aged 18–34 years were recruited. Capillary electrophoresis using the Minicap system was used for determining the hemoglobin variants in alkaline buffer (PH 9.4). Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and p-value < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance

Results: The mean age of the participants was 22.23 ± 3.3 SD years. The proportion of participants with genotype AA was 67 (67%), those with AS were 17 (22 %), while those with AC were 11 (11 %). While Hb A ≥ 90% was noted in 67 (67%) blood donors, Hb S was seen in 22 (22%) and Hb A2 > 3.5% in 57 (57%). Hb F > 2% was observed in 3% of the studied participants

Conclusion: Variant hemoglobin is common among blood donors and this should be taken into consideration whenever blood is being crossmatched for recipients of blood transfusion. Data from this study will be useful in raising awareness and genetic counseling.

Keywords: prevalence, hemoglobin variants, capillary electrophoresis

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