Anatomical Variations of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses in Sudan


Background: To study the anatomical variations of the nose and paranasal sinuses using Computed Tomography (CT) in Sudan during 2020–2022.

Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the radiological departments of Sudanese hospitals between 2020 June and 2022 June. The total number of patients was 111 of both sexes.

Results: In this study, CT of 111 patients was analyzed. The patients were aged 18–80 years (mean age: 33 years) and comprised of 52.3% females and 47.7% males. The most common anatomical variants in the study group were pneumatization in sphenoid sinus-sellar type (71.2%), attachment of uncinate process into lamina papyrecea (69%), Keros type II (63.1%), deviated nasal septum (42.3%), concha bullosa (37.8%), and Onodi cells (20%). The opacity of the sinus was seen in about half (49.5%) of the CT, with more common sinus involvement being maxillary sinus (35.1%) followed by frontal sinus (8.1%) and ethmoid sinus (6.3%). There was no opacity in the sphenoid sinus in this study.

Conclusion: The most common anatomical variants in the study group were pneumatization in the sphenoid sinus-sellar type. The opacity of paranasal sinuses was more common in the maxillary sinuses.


anatomical variations, CT-scan, nose, paranasal sinus

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