An Updated Review on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and the Current Approaches for Its Treatment


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic self-inflicted inflammatory disease that primarily affects middle-aged women. Globally, 1% of people live with RA. This review aims to provide updated information on the different aspects of RA, including its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management. A web-based literature search was conducted through various databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, to identify the most relevant studies. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence and occurrence of RA have remained inconsistent across geographical areas in different periods. Many factors such as age, gender, inheritances, and environmental exposure can contribute to the severity of the disease. The acute form of RA usually presents with pain, and if left untreated, it can result in joint deformities and influence a patient’s quality of life (QoL). RA diagnosis is usually based on the manifestation of pain with inflammation. Currently, many therapeutic strategies are available for the cure of RA. The management of daily routine activities is required with treatment to curtail the damage, avoid future deformities, and ultimately minimize the aching trouble of the patient.


arthritis, inflammation, joints, quality of life, autoimmunity

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