KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Educational Science and Training (The First ICEST) | pages: 234–248

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1. Introduction

Adolescents are individuals who are in the age range 11-24 years and unmarried [1]. Referring to this definition of adolescents, the high school age included in adolescence, especially middle teen i.e. age 15-18 years considering the average age of high school students are at that age [2]–[4]. The period of high school is characterized by several important characteristics, such as making choices and preparing for careers in accordance with their interests and abilities [4]–[6]. This is a demand that high school students must meet in society [7].

Students who have completed the study are faced with the choice of continuing to college or working after completing their education [8]–[10]. This decision is something very big and important for their lives [11]–[15]. In fact, students who have completed education have not been able to determine the direction of career planning [16]. Data show as many as 90% of high school students in Bandung are still confused in the selection of careers [17]. Similarly, SMA 1 Paguyangan Brebes District of Central Java Province shows only 10% of students who have career maturity in the high category [2].

One consequence of the phenomenon is that a quarter of the younger generation in Indonesia's work in unskilled jobs, so they do not use their skills optimally and yet the younger generation is now unemployed [18], [19]. Most unemployment in Indonesia is high school graduates [9]. This is confirmed by Section Head of Labor Exchange Muji Wiyono that in the first half of 2017 the unemployment rate of 7.03 million mostly consists of high school graduates [20].

Students who received education in universities as much as 82% chose the majors not based on the selection and preparation of their career in high school [21]. Some students also expressed the selection of majors they took only assuming being able to study in public universities without considering the potential and opportunities. Data show in 2010 as many as 50% of students in Canada failed to finish college in five years. This is because students move majors with their own departmental reasons are not as expected then look at other majors more interesting [22].

The condition of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship career maturity is closely related to sectoral and global economic development [23]. So the attention to efforts to increase this competence is a strategic target of national development. This makes the study of the variables that are assumed to have contributed to career maturity becomes very important to do [23]–[25]. Individuals who are not ready for career selection and inappropriate career selection are caused by low career maturity [26]. The phenomenon implies high school students to have career maturity so they can choose and determine their career direction appropriately, since career maturity is important in career selection [13]. More specifically, basic skills in the process of healthy career selection are when individuals have career maturity [11], [26]. Therefore, understanding and mastering the concept of career maturity is a must for high school students [3]. Essentially, individuals who have a high career maturity level will have healthy career choices and have confusion in lower career selection [11].

Career maturity is the individual's readiness to complete career development tasks at every stage of career development [13], [27], [28]. Super divides the stage of career development into five stages, namely growth (ages 4-10 years), exploration (age 14-24 years), formation (age 24-44 years), maintenance (age 44-64 years), and decline (age 65 to die) [29], [30]. Adolescents are included in the exploration phase, so the maturity of a career in adolescence is defined as how capable individuals make career choices and levels of knowledge about educational and occupational options [13].

A major challenge in career preparation is how individuals entering college are able to prepare themselves to create jobs, not "looking for existing jobs" [31]. The increase in educated unemployment is an important manifestation of college's unpreparedness in developing entrepreneurial based education systems [32], [33]. Proved by the condition of the unemployment rate of university graduates started in February 2016 were 7.02 million people or 5.5 percent, in the same year an increase in August 2016 that there were 7.03 million people [34].

Maturity of entrepreneurship career is influenced by several factors, such as locus of control and self concept [26]. Locus of control is an individual's perception of an event (success and failure) that is related to the inner control power of a person, which consists of internal or external controls [35]. Locus of control has two dimensions, which is internal and external [36], [37]. Internal locus of control is an individual belief that self-effort and behavior will affect events and lives to be lived [38]. Whereas, external Locus of control is an individual belief that its destiny is determined by external factors [36].

In daily life, individuals are expected to have an internal locus of control type because it will have a positive impact on the development of their lives and make their work more successful [39], [40]. The internal locus of control personality type contributes significantly to the condition of one's career maturity [19]. In contrast to individuals who have an external Locus of control personality type, the individual has the belief that his destiny is determined by influential people, fortune or coincidence, fate, and the belief that the world is too complicated to predict. Such beliefs hardly build a relationship between the results they achieve with their own actions [37], [39]. There is a tendency for lazy behavior to try, they assume that no matter how much effort will not guarantee success [41].

Furthermore, the factors that influence in career maturity are self-concept. Self-concept is the perception, observation, and judgment about oneself and in relation to others in his life [42]. Self-concept is an important component to be owned by individuals, because with the belief that all achievements are determined by effort, skill, and ability, the students will try to improve the skills and skills that become the career requirements [38]. Self-concept as one of the most important foundations in the success of life and a person feel good about himself and his ability so that predicted conditions of one's life will be successful [43], [44].

The concept of self is related to the typical job choices and positions that will be held by someone. The results showed that self-concept and career maturity develop together during physical growth and cognitive development [4]. The phenomenon of confusion in career selection also occurs in SMA Negeri 2 Siakhulu students. This is revealed through observation activities that have been done on November 28, 2017 at SMA Negeri 2 Siakhulu Riau Province through classical guidance in one class that is class XII IPA 5. When given an open question after high school graduate to continue where, the students there who answered continue to college and some are willing to work. However, when given further questions of lectures and work where, the average student is confused to answer them.

The phenomenon of entrepreneurship career maturity requires an in-depth study through research by looking at the contribution of Locus of Control factors and self-concept. The findings of this research will reveal the conditions of the contribution of both factors to the career maturity of students entering college, so that the findings will be able to analyze an effective road map in the preparation of entrepreneurship education in higher education.

2. Method

The sample in this study consists of 218 high-school students in Indonesia, who have completed the study and will enter the university. Sampling using random sampling technique by considering Power Measurement power to avoid errors α and β [45]. Power Measurement Analysis using G*Power Software and produces actual power of 0.953 with prediction of 48 samples. So with the strength of 218 samples, the number of respondents has been statistically strong. The locus of control condition data collection is done with Locus of Control Inventory (LCI) [46] which has been validated and adapted into Indonesian language. The condition of self concept was measured using Personal Self-Concept Inventory (PSCI) [47] with five alternative answers for each item on the scale. The research findings were analyzed using multiple regressions with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.

3. Result and Discussion

Internal locus of control

The findings of the study in Table 1 shows more than 80% of respondents believe the current state of achievement and life is something has earned and strived for before. There are 4.6% of respondents who have a very high internal locus of control, so it can be interpreted that the belief for each achieved by the student is what they have done before. However, there is still a condition of locus of control students who are in the moderate level. The achievement of frequency at a moderate level indicates that there are still respondents who consider some of the events that occur in their daily life are their own business, while some others are believed to be students as a result of conditions outside themselves.

Table 1

Overview of Locus of Internal Control.


Score Interval Category Frequency %
59 Very high 10 4.6
47 - 58 High 175 80.2
35 - 46 Moderate 33 15.2
23 - 34 Low 0 0
22 Very Low 0 0
Total 218 100

Self-concept

Individual self concept conditions were analyzed in this study use positive level category. The research findings presented in Table 2 shows that 52.7% of students have confidence and assessment of their condition at positive level, 35.4% have positive belief and understanding about their condition. Although, more than 11% have enough self-concept and are not positive. In relation to the maturity of entrepreneurship career, can be interpreted that as a student has a good concept of self ability and can develop them as a manifestation of understanding of the condition of self. In developing the potential of entrepreneurship, the condition of self concept is an important factor that must be owned by students. The more positive the self-concept, the ability to withstand the test and develop creative business ideas will be better.

Specific efforts that need to be done in high school are to improve the role and function of counseling and psychological services [48]–[51]. Students at puberty will experience greater self-concept shock than adults, so there needs to be efforts to overcome psychological conditions through comprehensive services [52]. This also applies to the locus of control; the student who has no faith in their condition is the result of previous attempts to be psychologically issues, so that this can be overcome by counseling services [53].

Table 2

Overview of Self-Concept.


Score Interval Category Frequency %
71 Very Positive 77 35.4
57 - 70 Positive 115 52.7
43 - 56 Quite Positive 24 11
29 - 42 Not Positive 2 0.9
28 Very Not Positive 0 0
Total 218 100

The conditions of these two variables are also described in Graphs 1 and 2. Comparison between the two predictors shows that the increase in Internal locus of control level is also followed by the more positive self-concept of the student.

Career maturity

The research findings show that more than half of respondents have the condition of career entrepreneurship maturity at high level (57.3%). This achievement indicates that in general the students have sufficient maturity index to perform various explorations and planning according to the stage of career development. Nevertheless, the exposure in Table 3 shows that more than 30% of students need a massive increase in career entrepreneurship maturity.

Table 3

Overview of Career Maturity.


Score Interval Category Frequency %
67 Very high 26 12
54 - 66 High 125 57.3
41 - 53 Moderate 59 27
28 - 40 Low 8 3.7
27 Very Low 0 0
Total 218 100

The achievement of career maturity in entrepreneurship becomes one of the main standards in developing entrepreneurship-based education programs in higher education. Research findings that show some respondents with low level of career maturity become an indicator that the need for curriculum preparation efforts to improve the condition of entrepreneurship career maturity.

Figure 1

Student's Internal Locus of Control (in 1-100 scale).

fig-1.jpg
Figure 2

Personal Self-Concept of Students (in 1-100 scale).

fig-2.jpg

Contribution of locus of internal control and self concept to career maturity

Internal contribution of Locus of Control and self-concept to career maturities were analyzed using multiple regressions and presented in Table 4. The achievement of R-value of 0.275 indicates regression coefficient between internal locus of control (X 1 ) on career maturity (Y) on P-value (significance) 0.000. The value of R Square (R 2 ) of 0.075, this means that 7.5% of the variation in the high-low career maturity can be explained by the internal locus of control, while the remaining 92.5% is explained by other variables. The achievement of R value indicates that beliefs about the self-condition that occur in the individual effects career maturity in entrepreneurship. This will have an impact on whether the individual is ready or not (in this case the student who will enter the vocational college) in starting his career as an entrepreneur. The barometer that became the starting point of entrepreneurial success is the ability to respond to every opportunity and challenge that occurs, so that with the internal locus of control is high, it will produce maturity in facing challenges as an entrepreneur. Research findings prove that the more dominant internal locus of control individuals, then contribute to the improvement of career maturity.

The relationship of self concept with the maturity of entrepreneurship career is shown on multiple regression models X 2 - Y in Table 4. Model test produces R value of 0.268 which shows regression coefficient between self concepts to career maturity, with significant level 0.000. The value of R Square (R 2 ) of 0.072, this means 7.2% variation in the high level of career maturity can be explained by self concept. The contribution of self-concept to career maturity becomes an indicator of the impact of the views, perceptions and beliefs of the individual on himself in improving the maturity of entrepreneurship career [54], [55]. Effectively, self-concept related to physical dimension, individual character and motivation will give significant manifestation to the ready or not of students for entrepreneurship [56], [57]. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that efforts to increase career maturity in entrepreneurship can be synergized with the improvement of self-concept of individuals related to entrepreneurship, where this can occur in higher education vocation through the development of a targeted curriculum.

Table 4

Overview of Career Maturity.


Model R R Square Sig.
X 1 -Y 0.275 0.075 0.000
X 2 –Y 0.268 0.072 0.000
X 1 , X 2 – Y 0.332 0.110 0.000
Note. X 1 : Internal locus of control, X 2 : Self-concept, Y: Maturity career of entrepreneurship

Tests on two variables (X 1 and X 2 ) together to the level of entrepreneurship career maturity resulted in a R value of 0.332 which shows a double regression coefficient between internal locus of control and self-concept of career maturity, with P-value (significance) 0.000. When analyzed from the achievement of R value, it can be interpreted that the coefficient value is in sufficient level, so this indicates that together, internal locus of control and student self concept have a significant contribution to the condition of career maturity in entrepreneurship. Power of the findings is also evidenced by the achievement of R Square (R 2 ) of 0.110; this means that 11% of the high variation in the low maturity of entrepreneurship career can be explained together by internal locus of control and self concept, while the remaining 89% is explained by other variables.

The acquisition of these values has been strong enough to be the basic reference in mapping the psychological conditions that became one of the determinants of career maturity of students in entrepreneurship. An in-depth study of the internal dimensions of locus of control and students' self-concept in preparing for entrepreneurship career is a key indicator in assessing the readiness of the students [58], [59]. The individual's self-confidence in self-achievement and deep understanding of his abilities is the main psychological factor that determines the maturity of a career in entrepreneurship. So the findings of psychological factors determining the maturity of entrepreneurship career becomes the basis of entrepreneurship education study in higher education vocational. The diagnosis of internal conditions of locus of control and self-concept in improving student career maturity in entrepreneurship in vocational higher education becomes the focus of main study in the preparation of entrepreneurship-based curriculum [60], [61].

4. Conclusion

The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant contribution of internal locus of control to the career maturity of entrepreneurial students in vocational higher education, as evidenced by the acquisition of R Square value of 7.5%, and self-concept contributed significantly to the career maturity of 7.2%. If the contributions of both variables are tested together it will contribute to the maturity of the career of students in entrepreneurship by 11%. It can be interpreted that the two variables are contributing in the direction of improving student career maturity in entrepreneurship in vocational higher education.

The contribution of these two psychological variables becomes an indication that in preparing the students to enter the vocational higher education and increasing the maturity of the students' career in entrepreneurship needs an analysis of the internal condition of locus of control and student self-concept. Procedures for diagnosis of the condition are also required especially in the early years of the lecture process, so that an entrepreneurship development program can be prepared and enhance the competitiveness of students upon completion of the later study.

Development and improvement of internal locus of control is the primary focus of school service providers, in this case school counselors. Testing and assessment of real student condition at the beginning of learning activity become the essence of efforts to increase locus of control. The long-term manifestation of this effort is the acquisition of an internal locus of control at the end of the learning session, which significantly affects career planning and maturity. This also applies to the student's self-concept, which at the beginning of the learning session is done assessing the student's condition. Knowledge of self-concept will increase the probability of future psychological conditioning of students.

In an effort as a place to develop entrepreneurship capability of prospective students, vocational colleges need proper regulation especially related to condition of student ability. Optimal development of student ability can be realized by knowing exactly the psychological aspects that support, one of them internal locus of control and self-concept. In addition, vocational colleges need the proper curriculum and supplementary synergies in developing entrepreneurship skills so that students produce mature graduates of entrepreneurship.

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