KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Educational Science and Training (The First ICEST) | pages: 45–57


1. Introduction

Everyone needs a language to communicate with the others as using language, one can communicate and make good relationship with the others. The communication at least two persons or more to send information to the others in order the conversation could be understood by the others. In communicating, it is necessary to learn how to use the language as communication is the process of sending, receiving and interpreting messages through which relate to each other and to our larger world as well [1].

A language is a mean of communication that plays important role in human life and its function is to transfer information as well as making social relationship especially in globalization era that no country in the world could not contact with the other country as it is called borderless. It is the caused by the sophisticated development of technology so that travelling is needed to interact with the others. Therefor it is needed a mean to communicate, that is language.

Language is really important that makes people need to learn. In the development, language is not only for communication but also for further study as well as learning its culture because language relates its culture. Therefor people learn foreign language [2] for travelling as travelling is certainly the way to see something new [3], broadens the mind [4], and increased tolerance of (foreign) people and circumstance [5]

As the importance of foreign language, it is built institution to learn foreign language in formal education as well as in formal one. Because of limited capacity of formal institution, it is made non-formal one to provide the leaner to learn foreign language that is foreign language course.

Foreign language in this research is the language except Bahasa Indonesia. The language could be from Asia or Europe. European language consists of English, French, Spanish and Germany whereas Asia languages are Korean, Japan, Mandarin and also language from Middle East that is Arabic. All those languages are provided by Kursus Bahasa Asing { KBA } University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

The leaners of KBA UMM are from public, not only from University of Muhammadiyah Malang. They are students of junior high school, senior of high school, university and also from different occupation such as teacher, lecturer, house wife, army, business people, and priest but majority of the leaners are students of university.

The teachers of KBA UMM consists of 5 English teachers, 1 French teacher, 3 Germany teachers, 2 Mandarin teachers, 2 Korean teacher, 2 Arabic teacher and 1 Spanish teacher so the total number is 8 teachers from different background, education and non-education background with the shortest teaching is 1 year and longest one is 9 years in KBA UMM.

As a non-formal institution, KBA UMM is expected to help government program to support making smart nation holistically in facing globalization. Not only learn foreign language but also character education that represents the characteristic of Indonesia. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on character education to increase the significance of learning foreign language in foreign language course.

Related to character education in foreign language course, the aims of this research are to dig out the indigenous character found in teaching Europe language and to describe its implementation of indigenous character as well as its problem in implementing.

2. Review of Related Literature

Character education

Character education consists of two words, character and education. Character is quality of mental or moral that differentiates person, group differs with the others [6]. Almost the same with Hornby as the author of Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, Indonesia dictionary Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia , character is defined as trait, personality, characteristic of soul [7]. From those two definition, it can be concluded that character education is education of characteristic or moral.

Personality based on Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia is attitude, trait and characteristic. Personality represents a mean of soul that guides mind and feeling to decide good and bad characteristic, good deed, effort and mind [7]. Attitude means as one's respond or action in the form of attitude, not only body but also speech. Related to personality, personality has similar meaning and essence with moral education. The purpose is to build one's personality become human, society and good citizen [8]. Further, the essence of moral education in education context in Indonesia is value education that is good value education based on Indonesia culture to form young generation's personality.

Whatever its name label, the content of character education above refers to alive values, grow and develop in Indonesia custom that heterogenous [9]. Therefore it is needed value, moral, norm guidance in human being social environment and the life [10]. The result is value education referring forming moral value that is suitable with the truth norms becomes especial for developing human holistically.

The aim of value education commonly can be focused for [10]:

  • Maintaining and planting moral and norm values.

  • Increasing and widening one's or group belief.

  • Increasing human's quality, group or life.

  • Protecting, narrowing and rejecting negative thing.

  • Keeping and doing expected world.

Doing clarification of intrinsic value from a moral value and norm as well as life generally.

3. Method

Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research to analyse indigenous character found in foreign languages;

The setting of this research is at Kursus Bahasa Asing in University of Muhammadiyah Malang [KBA UMM]. It is taken as it is under responsibility of University of Muhammadiyah Malang and the leaners from its university and outsider that different education and age and also it is the only foreign language course that provides 8 languages. The language could be from Asia or Europe. Europe language consists of English, French, Spanish and Germany whereas Asia languages are Korean, Japan, Mandarin and also language from Middle East that is Arabic. All those languages are provided by Kursus Bahasa Asing { KBA } University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

The instrument used in this research are interview, observation and document to investigate the implementation of indigenous character found on European foreign language in foreign language course.

Collecting data are done by observing the real condition in foreign language course, making FGD with the teachers of European foreign language and interviewing to get the problems faced in teaching foreign language in foreign language course.

Data analysis uses descriptive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative approach. These approaches try to discover the implementation and its character education problem so that it is found the picture of character education in foreign language course.

4. Finding and Discussion

This part provides data based on interview, observation and document then it is analysed. The result of this research is described based on the research problems. Those are the indigenous character found on European foreign Language, its implementation and its problems in foreign language course.

Indigenous character found on Europe language in KBA UMM

Indigenous character education can be defined as all effort done to influence the leaner's character. Character education has become attention for many nations to prepare the young generation that has quality, not only for the sake of individual but also the society as a whole.

English is one of international language that should be mastered by people to face globalization. Therefore, people from young to adult want to learn English to increase their ability on English. In teaching English in KBA UMM, there are character education found. Those are below:

Table 1

Indigenous Character found on English.


No Indigenous Character
1 Discipline
2 Tolerance
3 Confidence
4 Self confidence
5 Creative
6 Honest
7 Like reading

The table 1 shows that there are 7-character educations found in teaching learning English. Those are discipline, tolerance, confidence, self-confidence, creative, honest and like reading.

German language is identic with sophisticated technology. Many people interest to visit this country to learn deeply on technology so that they should learn its language communicate. Interesting teaching learning will make the learners more motivated to learn it. The indigenous character found in teaching learning German language are presented on table below:

Table 2

Indigenous Character found on German Language.


No Indigenous Character
1 Communicative
2 Creative
3 Curiosity
4 Honest
5 Discipline

The table above describes 5-character educations on teaching learning on German language. They are communicative, creative, curiosity, honest and discipline.

France is well-known for its beauty and romantic so many tourists want to visit it as destination. Its language, France is well-known for its beautiful language that make people to learn it. Here are indigenous character found on teaching learning on France below:

Table 3

Indigenous Character found on France Language.


No Indigenous Character
1 Creative
2 Discipline
3 Couriousity
4 Work hard
5 Self confidence

The table 3 above describes 5-character educations on teaching learning on Germany. They are creative, discipline, curiosity, work hard and self-confidence.

Spain Language is also one of language used by many people in the world. There are 21 countries use Spanish such as Spain, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and the others. The language is easy to learn as some vocabularies are similar with English vocabularies so that it is interesting to learn. In teaching learning process, there are 9 characters education found. They are presented below:

Table 4

Indigenous Character found on Spain Language.


No Indigenous Character
1 Religious
2 Honest
3 Creative
4 Tolerance
5 Discipline
6 Curiosity
7 Democratic
8 Work hard
9 Self confidence

The table above describes 9-character educations on teaching learning on Spain. They are religious, honest, creative, discipline, curiosity, democratic, work hard and self-confidence.

Implementation indigenous character on European language in foreign language course

Based on the research done, here are the finding of the implementation of indigenous character found in foreign language course:

Implementation of indigenous character on English

The first indigenous character found in teaching learning process on English is discipline. It shows the action that describes orderly attitude and obey towards agreement and rule. Discipline character is shown by the learner through on time when entering and starting the class. All the learners obey towards the rule to be on time before the teaching leaning process begins. The second character found is tolerance. The learners are trained to respect each other and respect different culture and individual's interest. They are learned to mutual respect their own culture as well as individual's interest, they really respect privacy by not involving the other's privacy. Further, confidence is one of character found in teaching learning process. This character is signed as a teacher gave assignment to the learners. The assignment should be presented then the leaners did it without ashamed and also confident.

The next character found is self-confidence. The learners are educated to have self-confidence to do assignment. They do the assignment individually and without asking the answer from the others. Then, creative character education is given to the leaners that indirectly taught through conversation. When a teacher asked the question, the answers of participants were varied. They can think fast and creative in answering the question. Honesty is also found, It is given to the learners and trained to every learner by not cheating in doing the test given by the teacher. The last character found is like reading. The teacher asked the learners to read several reading texts so that it would increase their vocabulary.

Implementation of indigenous character on German language

The value found in teaching learning Germany is communicative. It is an action shows feeling like to talk, interactive and working together. This value is seen on short conversation between the learner and the teacher as well as among the learners. For example, greeting each other and asking their condition each other and asking varied question to the teacher. The next character is creativity that the learners think and do something by new way or new result from something which has been owned. For example, in teaching learning activity, the learners were asked to mention or spell alphabet several times then they are ordered to mention vocabulary based on the first alphabet that has been last mentioned. The next character found is curiosity. The learners are taught to always know deeper and larger from what is learnt. It is seen on puzzle of “yes/no question” show their curiosity. The honesty is also found in teaching learning process. This action based on the effort whether the learners could be trusted in saying, action and assignment. This value focused on the learner's willingness to or not to do assignment given.

Implementation of indigenous character on France language

The first character found is creativity in teaching learning process. This character through giving instruction to classify vocabulary based on the class of the word. The second one is discipline showed “on time “to submit the assignment. The next character found is curiosity by asking the learners to find our information related cities in France and the famous thing in it as well as its dialect.

The next character is work hard. I t is done by giving assignment to memorize the vocabulary and its meaning. The last character found is self-confidence. The leaners are taught to have this character by giving assignment for individual with writing the interest topic without helping from others except France dictionary.

Implementation of indigenous character on Spain language

The character found in teaching learning activity is religious. It is implemented before and after teaching leaning by praying. It is also seen when there is adzan, the teaching leaning process stopped and it started again after adzan finished. The next character found is honesty in doing the test. The next character is tolerance by respecting each other on their opinion in teaching learning process. The character found is discipline on coming and staring the class and also doing and submitting the assignment. The other character found is work hard. It is shown by the leaners in finishing assignment based on the deadline. Creative is also found. It is done by the learners to find out the sources internet and books. Confidence character also appears when the leaners do the test individual, without helping from the others. Democratic value is done through respect the others' opinion and argumentation. The last character found is curiosity. It is taught to know deeper and larger about something they learn through giving question related to vocabulary.

The problems faced in implementing indigenous character found on Europe language in foreign language course

In implementing indigenous character on teaching leaning English, it is found problems, they are presented below:

Table 5

The Problems Faced in English.


No Problem Found
1 Several different culture between the learners' mother tongue and English
2 Lack of knowledge on Indonesia language
3 Lack of vocabulary that hamper the process of teaching learning
4 Lack of discipline in teaching learning activity
5 Using language creates racism although for joking
6 Lack of reading habit

Table 5 shows 6 problems in implementing indigenous character in teaching learning English. They are different culture of mother tongue and English, lack of knowledge, vocabulary, discipline and reading habit and also appearing racism through joke.

Teaching German language only finds one problem as presented on table below:

Table 6

The Problem Faced in German Language.


No Problem Found
1. Educating honesty

Table 6 only presents one problem faced in implementing indigenous character in teaching German language that is educating honesty.

The problem found in teaching learning France language are below:

Table 7

The Problems Faced in France Language.


No Problem Found
1. Different age of learners [elementary, Junior, Senior and university students] that is difficult to organize
2. University students are easily to interact and active while the elementary and junior students prefer to keep silence and difficult to interact whereas senior students tend to make group for it level.

Table 7 explains the problems in implanting indigenous character found in teaching learning France language. Those are different age and characteristic among the learners in join foreign language course.

In teaching learning problems on Spain language, it is found several problems. They are as follow:

Table 8

The Problems Faced in Spain Language.


No Problem Found
1. The average ability of learners is lack
2. The material is a lot but the time is limited

Table 8 displays 2 problems found in implanting indigenous character on teaching learning Spain language. They are lack of the learners' average ability and limited time to teach material.

5. Discussion

There are 4 Europe foreign languages in this research. They are English, German, French and Spanish languages. Every language appears different indigenous character based on its culture.

Every language focused on certain character education. English dominates on tolerance that respecting each other on different culture and interest as interact directly that makes living in harmony with society in local, national as well as international that needs concept of “the otherness” which appreciates differences and is celebrated by post-modern [11]; [12]. The difference is not bad. It means man should not be expected to do the same thing as we do and should not be judged not perfect or bad [11] except appreciating the difference and not forcing the others. Here is the beautiful of pluralism as appreciates the difference and not forcing someone else to do the same thing [14] while German language focuses on honesty whether the learners can be trusted or not on saying, action and assignment and also to answer honestly when they are asked whether they can do the assignment or not. The focus on France language is self-confidence whereas in Spain language is honesty.

In implementing the indigenous character in Europe language, there are similarities values but different implementation. For example, honesty, on German language is focused on doing assignment at class and at home whereas in English, the honesty is implemented on doing the test [not doing cheating in test]. Work hard is the next character. In France language, it is taught by giving assignment to memorize vocabulary and increase their vocabulary while in Spain language, it is shown the leaners' work hard to finish their assignment and another responsibility given by the teacher based on limited time. Self confidence in English and France language focuses the leaners to do assignment given by the teacher while in Spain language focuses on the leaners to do the test. Creativity on English, German and France language tends the leaners to select, choose, combine and make sentence from several words whereas in Spain language represent the learners' way to find out material from internet and books. Discipline character is shown on time coming and starting in English and Spain language while in France language is shown on time on submitting the assignment given by the teacher the class. The next character is tolerance that on English, it focuses on respecting each's culture and interest while in Spain language it shows respect another's opinion. Reading habit is found in English teaching learning. The last character is curiosity. In German and Spain language, this character is focused on the teacher's way in giving question on vocabulary related to the material given whereas in France language, it intended to search information about several cities in France and their unique and well-known things.

Every language has its problem that different each other. It is based on its language, the teacher and the leaners' background. The problems in English consist of linguistic and non-linguistic. In non-linguistic problem covers different culture from different region, lack of knowledge about their own regional culture, lack of discipline, reading habit and using language for a joke that creates racism while in linguistic problem is lack of vocabulary that hampers to express the leaners' opinion. In German language, it is only found one problem, training honesty as there are several leaners are not honest in doing the assignment and test the next problem faced in teaching France language is non-linguistic problem, different age and level of leaners that is difficult to combine as they have different characteristic whereas in Spain language faced linguistic and non-linguistic problem. In linguistic problem, there are many materials but the time is limited whereas in non-linguistic is average ability of learners is fair so that the process of teaching learning activity does not run well and facing problem to understand the material given.

6. Conclusion and Suggestion

Conclusion

Based on the finding and discussion on indigenous character found on Europe languages in foreign language course, it can be concluded that:

  • Indigenous character found on Europe language in foreign language course represents its culture.

  • The implementation of those elements are seen on the activity of teaching foreign language, that are similar and different among Europe language

  • The character education problems faced in implementing are two aspects, linguistic and non-linguistic. The linguistic problems consist of the leaners' ability to learn foreign language whereas nonlinguistic problem covers the leaners' attitude and behavior.

Suggestion

Character education is all's responsibility such as society, government and institution. It should be priority attention so that it can be implemented in daily life through education.

Some suggestions are given. Here are below:

  • For the teacher of foreign language, it is expected to keep training nationalism and another culture of its language culture.

  • For the leaners, it is expected not to leave their own culture although they learn foreign language as not all foreign language is good so that it is better to select good culture and avoid bad culture.

  • For institution, it is expected to teach Indonesia culture while teaching foreign language.

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Hornby, AS. (1983). Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary Of Current English. England: Oxford University Press

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Poerwadarminta (2003). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia

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Piliang, Yasraf A. 2006. Antara Homogenitas dan heterogenitas: Estetika dalam Cultural Studies. Makalah Guest lecture di Pasca Sarjana, Kajian Budaya, Universitas Udayana.

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Taufik, Muhammad.2005. Teori Sosial Postmodern. Yogyakarta: Kreasi Wacana

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Fay, Brian. 1998.Filsafat Ilmu Sosial Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Jendela.

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Astawa, I Nengah Dasi. 2005. Sisi SWOT Multikulturalisme Indonesia. Jurnal Kajian Budaya Universitas Udayana.

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