KnE Social Sciences | The First Economics, Law, Education and Humanities International Conference (The First ELEHIC) | pages: 332–339

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1. Method

The approach of this research is qualitative. Qualitative research means based on claim that qualitative research involves an interpretive and naturalistic approach. It is in line with Denzin and Lincoln who stated that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” [1]. Shank defined that qualitative research as “a form of systematic empirical inquiry into meaning”[9]. It can be summarized that qualitative research is a research explains the natural things or existing things. The data could have many interpretations because it depends on the knowledge and context itself.

This research is based on descriptive qualitative which means that the research describes the existing phenomenon occurring on the site. It only discusses what is being held or conducted both by students and lecturers. Gay and Airasian also stated that descriptive qualitative research determines and describes the way things are and it can be used to investigate the educational problems and issues[3]. Meanwhile, Parse also mentions that descriptive qualitative is to study intensely a phenomenon to discover pattern and themes about live events, social sciences, and discipline-specific theoretical perspective in education [8].

This research is emphasized by a phenomenology research where it means the research explains the existing condition and situation on the site. Parodi stated that phenomenology is a research that is understood by an priori knowledge and object understood by basis of someone experience [7]. In a simple way, Litchman, argues that phenomenology is a research analyzing the observable phenomena [6]

Earle, et al explain that design and development research develops solutions to achieve a goal related to education or learning, such as improving student engagement or mastery of a set of skills [2]. Research projects of this type draw on existing theory and evidence to design and iteratively develop interventions or strategies, including testing individual components to provide feedback in the development process. These projects may include pilot tests of fully developed interventions to determine whether they achieve their intended outcomes under various conditions. Results from these studies could lead to additional work to better understand the foundational theory behind the results or could indicate that the intervention or strategy is sufficiently promising to warrant more advanced testing.

Thiagarajan had already stated the form of Four D Models. They are define, design, develop and disseminate [10]. Define steps are analysis of the students, tasks, concepts, and learning goals. Meanwhile, the design steps are setting the test, selecting the media, and selecting the format. The development steps are validation of the media, simulation, and try out. The last is disseminate where distributing the media to schools both student and lecturers and also finding out the validity, practicality and effectiveness of the product.

Source of data of the research were documents and information from the listening subject lecturers. The documents used for the research were the documents of listening subject during teaching and learning process. It could be books, handout, cds, etc. Data of the research was the teaching materials itself in Listening subject. Techniques of data collection were questionnaire, document checklist, interview. The documents of the research were teaching materials used by lecturers on teaching and learning. Questionnaire has a purpose to find out the students opinion about teaching.

Document checklist is to find out the learning objectives or goals and even the lesson plan used by the lecturers. It also has a function to find some weaknesses of the teaching materials used. Analysis document is one of data collection techniques. By using this technique, the researchers go the data to be analyzed. Documents itself were like books, handout, lesson plan and cds. There was one syllabus or lesson plan of the listening subject though the lecturers were two.

The researchers also applied document analysis in order to analyze the data. Gay and Airasian inform that there 6 components of data analyzing [3]. They are data managing, reading/memoing,describing, classifying, interpreting, and writing the report. Data managing means that the data will select on which items could be the data of the research. After that, reading and memoing was conducted in order to get the comprehension and also give codes for each data. Describing means that the researchers explained and elaborated the data of the research. Classifying means that the data were grouped into some classification in order to be easily read and understood. Interpreting means the hidden information found on the data analysis will be presented or displayed through sentences or graphs. Writing report means that the researchers write the report well through the formal language.

The researchers used Hutchinson and Water theory on analyzing the data (2006). It analyzes the components to define the objectives of teaching material development. The components should provide a stimulus to learning, help to organize teaching learning process, use nature of language and learning, provide nature of learning task, broadening the teacher's knowledge, and provide correct and language use. Theory of taxonomy of the cognitive domain from Bloom in Huitt, W used in order to get more analysis [5]. It is because theory affects the researchers in order to manage or set the quality of teaching material and organization of teaching material from low to high level.

2. Results and Discussion

There are two analysis conducted by the researchers on this paper. They are design and development step. The first analysis is design stage where it has some components such as setting the test, selecting the media, and selecting the format. Second analysis will be development stage where it consists of validation of the media, simulation, and try out.

Design stage

After conducting observation to the documents. There are many things should be design. First thing is the syllabus or lesson plan. Based on the previous syllabus, it was found out that the syllabus did not have a well-structures of the materials. The topics of the lesson was not set form the easy into the difficult one. Then, the learning outcome and the form of the test had not been defined yet.

Therefore, a new syllabus is proposed to make the process of learning running well. First week, it is about name, numbers and addresses. Second week is about introducing yourself. Third week is begin and end up the conversation. Fourth week is number and prices. Fifth week is about family. Six week is describing time and date. Seven week is getting the information. Eight week is direction. Nine week is comparative and superlative. Ten week is Bank and Post office terms and information.

Eleven week is how to ask and order the menu. Twelve week is health. Thirteen week is going to travel and the last week is travelling with guided tour. Regarding to the test form, it consists of exercise and test. Exercise task consists of questions that should be answered by filling the blank and multiple choice. Filling the blank is used in order to make the student stay focused on the listened text. Then it is also to give warm up for the students. The answer is only in the form of a word. It is considered because the students study the Listening I or basic Listening.

For the test, the questions are in the form of multiple choice. The multiple choice question used to practice the student memory about what text that they have just listened from the text. The exercise and test questions are also set by using the theory of Bloom such as using what, where, which, who, when, how, etc. For both exercise and test, the student will get their correct and incorrect score right away after they completing the task.

Talking about selecting the media, an audio visual media is used to be the learning media. Audio and visual are combined in order to make the students get interested to study and get the highest score in Listening I. Each of audio is selected well in order to have a clear listening. The selected text audio used is the simple one. It is to make the student focus and interest during the teaching and learning. Visual is also implemented for the media in order to make the student be able to imitate some lessons on the media and to avoid the student's stress and bored. So that, the student could study the listening interestingly and practically.

Then, about the media format, an interactive CD is used for the teaching and learning. It is because there are many universities right now have facilitated their students by using sufficient hardware and software. A CD could be read by the program well. In addition, a CD is also safe place to keep the teaching and learning source. An interactive CD made is a CD consisting the video and audio of the materials. The CD is also provided with the answer, so that it makes the students learn quickly.

Content of the CD such video is made by using camera, Tripod, earphone, and microphone. The shooting is conducted by using professional Production House (PH). It is really importance to use the PH in order to make a good CD contents such as pictures, layouts, sounds and subtitling. So the CD contents are the materials explained both visual and audio. Once the contents of the CD are finished to shoot, the next step is making the interactive CD. The CD is created by using various software such XAMPP and New Google Chrome and Adobe Flash Player in order to make the interactive CD well-displayed and played. By having a good management and clear setting, an interactive CD can increase the student's interest, improve the lecturer's knowledge and elevate the student's listening subject scores.

Development stage

Development stage is started by finding the validity, practicality and effectiveness of the interactive CD. Validation is conducted by the expert on teaching media and also the language content. Validation must be conducted in order to make the interactive CD can be disseminated into many universities. The aspects of the validation consist of the easiness of how to operate the media, using the picture or various color, types of the sentence, concept or theories, motivation, creativity, problem-solving, autonomous learning, discipline and communicative. Those components must be considered in order to make the CD could be implemented in universities. CD will be checked the format, language, video, audio, instruction, answers, etc. The validation uses a validation sheet.

Practicality test is conducted both lecturers and students. The lecturers and students from the selected universities will be distributed the questionnaire about the practicality of the interactive CD. Questionnaire also provides the direction of answering the question in the term of very disagree, disagree, agree and very agree. It is also supported by the coloumn of critics and suggestion of the interactive CD users. It is very important to know the weaknesses or the strong points of the CD.

Effectiveness of the CD will be performed by the using the one of the tests in the CD. The students will be allowed to run the program to answer the questions. If the students answer more correct questions, it means that the CD is effective to be used for teaching and learning media. Simulation and try of the interactive CD is initiated in STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat especially in English department. The next place is Politeknik Negeri Padang, then third place is UMMY Solok and the last one is STBA Agus Salim Bukittingi. Simulation is conducted in order to find out whether the CD could be used properly.

3. Conclusion

Interactive CD is an appropriate media used by the universities for teaching Listening subject. To make a good interactive CD, some steps must be conducted such designing and developing the CD itself. By following the steps of designing and developing, it will make the the CD applicable for the Listening subject.

Acknowledgement

Firstly, the researchers would like to express their gratitude to Dr.Zusmelia, M.Si as the President of STKIP PGRI West Sumatra for giving permit to conduct the research in STKIP PGRI West Sumatra. Then, they also want to express their gratitude to Suharni, M.Pd M.Pd for giving them a permit to conduct the research in the laboratory and English Education Study Program. Next, they also want to thank to Villia Anggraini, M.Pd for giving guidance to make the research. Finally, it is special thank for Yalmiadi, M.Pd for being validator of the research.

References

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Denzin N. and Lincoln Y. (Eds.) (2000). Hand Book of Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publication Inc.

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Earle Janice, et al. (2013). Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development A Report from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation

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Gay, L.R & Peter Airasian. (2000)Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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Hutchinson, Tom &Alan Waters, (2006)English For Spesific Purposes: A learning Centred Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Hwit, W. (2011)Educational Psychology Interactive.Valdosta: Valdosta State University.

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Litchman, M. (2006). Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Parse, Rosiemarie Rizzo. (2001) Qualitative Inquiry the Path of Sciencing. London: Jones and Bartlet Publisher.

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Shank, G. (2002). Qualitative Research. A Personal Skills Aproach. New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall.

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Thiagarajan, S., Semmel, D. S & Semmel, M. I. (1974). Instructional Development for Training Teachers of Expectional Children. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Leadership Training Institute/Special Education, University of Minnesota.

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ISSN: 2518-668X