KnE Social Sciences | The First Economics, Law, Education and Humanities International Conference (The First ELEHIC) | pages: 223–233

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1. Background

Bahasa Indonesia is the unity language of Indonesian nation as implied in the Youth Pledge of October 28th, 1928, the language of the country as mentioned in the 1945 Constitution, article 36 which, from the point of language structure, is the variety of Malay language or as it was stipulated in the Indonesian II Congress of 1954 in Medan, The Basics of Indonesia is a Speeding Language adapted to the growth of the Indonesian society ". Chaer [1] reveals in its development, Indonesian language absorb many elements of regional languages and elements of foreign languages.

One of the development of Indonesian languages comes from elements of regional languages that have enriched the Indonesian language in perkembanggnnya, especially in terms of his vocabulary. Not a few local languages are picked up and then become an Indonesian word [2], then the number of Indonesian vocabulary increasing one of which comes from the Minangkabau language. The Indonesian vocabulary (BI) is not only accepting the richness of the local languages, but now there should be a vocabulary of local language sources that could potentially be developed as Indonesian riches. It can be proved that in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) the existence of Minangkabau (BM) language vocabulary is largely absorption element of indonesian. Based on the writer's observation, the amount of absorption element of BM in BI contained in Huge Indonesian Dictionary Second Edition [3] amounted to 455 vocabulary.

The research of absorption element of BM in BI by the author's knowledge has never been done. This study examines the formation of Minangkabau language absorption elements in Indonesian language. In this study the authors observed the process of formation of absorption elements of BM in BI.

2. Methodology and Theory

According to Chaer [4] word absorption is a word that comes from a foreign language or regional language, then used in the Indonesian language. Furthermore, Chaer states that from tarap absorption there are three kinds of absorption words, namely (1) words that have been fully absorbed into the Indonesian language, so it is no longer felt its presence as an absorption word, for example, soursop, advertisement, body. (2) Words that are still foreign, but used in the Indonesian context. Spelling and pronunciation still follow the alien way, for example cock, time out, check in, door to door. (3) Foreign words which for the purposes of terminology, speech and spelling are adapted to Indonesian rules. In this case the change of spelling is made as necessary so that its Indonesian form can still be compared with the original form of the language, such as battery (accu), commission (commission), and phase (phase).

The formation of the absorption element of BM in BI used Chaer approach [4] about sound changes as a result of morphological process called morphophonemic or morphophonology. In this process it may occur the events of (a) the appearance of phonemes, (b) phonemic releasing, (c) phoneme delivery, (d) phoneme shifts, and (e) phoneme changes. (f) phoneme perpetual. Furthermore, to understand the syllable [4] is the smallest rhythmic unit in a speech current. A syllable usually involves one vowel sound or one vowel and one or more consonants. The sequence of consonant-vowel sounds in a syllable is called phonotactic. The consonant sound before the vowel (which is the peak of its loudness) is called the onset (O) and the consonant present after the vowel is called the koda (K) while the vowel itself is called the nuklus (N), for example the Indonesian word eating (makan) the syllable is ma-kan but for the word food,the syllable is ma-ka-nan. The sound / n / which becomes the koda (K) in the syllable in the word kan is replaced to an onset (O) on the syllable of nan from the word food. Orthographically, the Indonesian spelling provisions is ma-kan-an, but orthographically labeled ma-ka-nan.

The method used is descriptive method. Source of data obtained from Minangkabau-Indonesia Dictionary Language [5] and Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Second Edition) [3]. The method of data provision is done by referring method [6], for example listening to BM vocabulary in BM dictionary and BI dictionary then use the technique of record, the data collected done recording on the data card which immediately followed by the classification data. The method of data analysis is used by the method of agih tool is precisely part of the language in question [6] and data analysis technique used technique of lesap, change technique.

3. Results and Discussions

The appearing and changing of phoneme BMBI

The appearance of the phoneme of the absorption element of BM in BI (BMBI) occurs because of the presence of a phoneme which was not present because of the morphological process arises a phoneme in the morphophonemic at the beginning, middle, and end of the word in the following data:

1. andam - handam

In the formation of the Indonesian word absorption element andam into handam (BI) 'memingit'(stay at home) only one data encountered its appearance at the beginning of the word data (1) there is no previous morphophonemic process appear consonant fricative glottal / h / as onset (O) if its basic form starting with the vowel / a / in the first syllable an of the word andam becomes han from word handam. Furthermore, BMBI phonemes appear in the middle of the word in the following data:

2. botok - bontak

3. saok - sahap

The absorption element of BMBI data (2) botok becomes bontak 'round bulb' it appear bo to bon on the first syllable consonant / n / as the koda emerges when the basic form begins with consonant / b / botok becomes bontak as well as vocal changes / o / on the second syllable becomes the vowel / a / followed by the consonant / k /. Data (3) soak if the basic form begins with the consonant / s / becomes a sahap 'cover' phenomenon occurs the appearance of consonant / h / as onset in the second syllable if the second syllable begins with vowel / o / becomes consonant / h / accompanied by vowel / o / being vowel / a / and consonant / k / being consonant / p /. In addition, there are phonemic appearances and changes at the end of the following words:

4. dia - diar       11. jolo - jolor

5. baga - bagar       12. sarawa - serawal

6. dama - damar       13. gawa - gawal

7. kaca - kacar       14. coga - cogah

8. pasa - pasar       15. ungka - ungkah

9. sanga - sangar       16. tungkah - tungkahan

10. ponda - pondar

In the data (4-10) the pattern of consonant appearance /r/ in dia, baga, dama, kaca, pasa, sanga, ponda becomes diar let go, bagar `gulai bagar', damar `candlenut', kacar `grope', pasar `slippery', sangar `stimulating like the smell of union, dan pondar `dumpy' occurs when the second syllable basic word begins with a, ga, ma, ca, sa, nga, and da to be ar, gar, mar, car, sar, ngar, and dar, the appearance of phoneme /r/ in (BI) as koda besides (11) the word jolo becomes jolor `creep' occurs when the second syllable begins with the consonant / l / lo becomes lor, consonant / r / as the code. The data (12) and (13) the sarawa becomes the sarawal 'pants' and gawa become gawal, the consonant / l / as the koda arises when the basic form in the third syllable begins with wa becomes wal while the data 14 and 15 coga becomes cogah 'dashing', and ungka become the ungkah 'dismantle' the appearance of those consonants / h / as koda when the second syllable begins with ga and ka become gah and kah. In addition, the data (16) tungkah becomes tungkahan 'foundation' when the basic word tungkah, second syllable kah ends up with the consonant / h / as the koda gets affixed-an the third syllable where it becomes the onset of the third syllable han on the word tungkahan (BI).

Releasing and changing phoneme BMBI

The absorption of phoneme BM in BI is an event of phoneme loss due to morphological process. The phonemic absorption element of BM in BI is found in the following data:

17. kalikih - keliki

18. sunuah - sunu

In the data (17) there is consonant deletion / h / as the koda on the third syllable kih word kalikih becomes keliki 'papaya fruit'. The data (18) of sunuah into sunu 'burn' occurs consonant deletion / h / as the koda on the second syllable of nuah to nu with the change of diphthong / ua / to be / u /. Both data are imprinted on the second syllable ending with consonant / h /.

Changing phoneme BMBI

The changing phoneme BM in BI (BMBI), that is the changing of a phoneme into another form of phoneme in the following data:

19. kuia - kuir       22. kincia - kincir

20. alia - alir       23. lansia - langsir

21. gabia - gabir

The change of data phonemes (19-23) kuia become kuir 'peasant', alia becomes alir 'slippery', gabia becomes gabir 'unusual', kincia becomes kincir 'jentera', and elderly becomes langsir 'skinny'. The phoneme change of each data occurs when the second syllable ends with diphthong / ia / as the nuklus becomes ir (BI) vowel / i / with the consonant / r / (BI) as the koda and begins phoneme / l /, / b / / c /, and / s /, except the data kuia becomes kuir direct diphthong / ia / to be ir followed by consonant as the nuklus becomes koda.

24. atua - atur       27. ganjua - ganjur

25. takua - takur       28. julua - julur

26. sumbua - sumbur

The data phoneme change (24-28) occurs in the second syllable of diphthong / ua / becomes / ur / second syllable beginning with the phoneme / t /, / k /, / b /, / j /, and / l / (BMBI) atua becomes atur 'set', takua becomes takur 'submissive', sumbua becomes sumbur 'fertilize', ganjua becomes ganjur 'pull', and julua becomes julur 'creep'. The changing occurs in the second syllable diphthong / ua / as nuklus turns into / ur /, vowel / u / accompanied by the consonant / r / as the koda. Other phoneme changes as follows:

29. paguik - pagut       34. runyuik - runyut

30. lacuik - lacut       35. kambuik - kembut

31. ruruik - rurut       36. lingkuik - lingkup

32. unjuik - unjut       37. culiak - colek

33. conguik - cengut

Furthermore, phoneme changes occur in BMBI (29-35) data when the second and third syllables are preceded by the phoneme / g /, / c /, / r /, / j /, / ng /, ny /, and / b / second syllable word ends with uik to be ut, diphthong / ui / being vocal / u / accompanied by consonant / k / (BI) remains as a koda on the word paguik becomes pagut 'hug', lucuik becomes lucutt 'hit', ruruik becomes rurut 'fall', unjuik becomes unjut 'handkerchief', conguik becomes cengut 'stunned', runyuik becomea runyut 'wrinkled', kambuik becones kembut 'woven pouch', except (36) and (37) the lingkuik becomes lingkup `go or come all”, diphthong / ui / being vowel / u / accompanied by consonant / p / on the second syllable of kuik into kup and culiak becomes colek 'poking', the syllables of the two liak end up being iak to be ek a syllable of lek and culiak becomes colek, the change in the first syllable of the cu vowel / u / becomes co vowel / o / beginning consonant / c / and diphthong / ia / becomes vowel / e / second syllable followed by consonant / k /. The phonemic changes of BMBI absorption elements also occur in the following data:

38. dabiah - dabih       44. labuah - lebuh

39. siriah - sirih       45. uduah - uduh

40. sangiah - sangih       46. guguah - guguh

41. suntiah - suntih       47. lasuah - lasuh

42. lapiah - lapir       48. kuyuah - kuyuh

43. kampuah - kempuh       49. lintuah - lintuh

The phoneme change of BMBI data (38-42) occurs a change of diphthong / ia / with consonant / h / iah becomes vowel / i / accompanied by second syllable /h/ ih as nuklus if begins with phonem /b/, /r/, /ng/, / t / biah from word dabiah, riah from word siriah, ngiah from word sangiah, and piah from word lapiah become bih word dabih 'slaughtered', rih word sirih 'plant', ngih word sangih 'glut', tih word suntih 'cutting the meat', except lapiah, syllable iah become ir to be lapir 'interwoven tightly'. However, (43-49) the changing at the end of the second syllable becomes uh vowel / u / accompanied by the consonant / h / as nuklus with the starting point of the phoneme / p /, / b /, / d /, / g. / s /, / y /, and / t / in the second syllable of the word kampuah, labuah, uduah, kesuah, lasuah, kuyuah, lintuah become kempuk `soft' 'peluk', lebuh jalan 'big', uduh 'medicinal herb', guguh `hit', lasuh `fluent', kuyuh 'pee', lintuh 'weak '. The next variation of phoneme changes as follows:

50. loroang - lorong      54. cangguang - canggung

51. joloang - jolong       55. santuang - sentung

52. saluang - salung      56. sunggiang - sungging

53. garuang - garung

Data (50) and (51) there are a change of diphthong / oa / become vowel / o / with consonant / ng / as nuklus in the second syllable of roang and loang beginning by consonant / r / and / l / in the words lorong `about' and jolong `beginning'. The data (52-55) the second syllable change in the second word luang to the word saluang becomes lung, the word salung 'flute' flute, ruang from word garuang to be rung, the word garung 'hard cry', the word guang the word cangguang becomes gung the word canggung 'awkward', and tuang the word santuang into tung the word santung 'tight', diphthong / ua / being vowel / u / accompanied by consonant / ng / as nuklus with starting point by consonant / l /, / r /, / g /, and / t /. In addition, there is a change in the syllable of san to sen, vowel / a / being vocal / e / data (55), except (56) sunggiang becomes sungging 'bulge toward the bottom', the change occurs in the second syllable diphthong / ia / giang becomes vocal / i / ging beginning with consonant / g /. Other phoneme changes can also be observed in the following data:

57. karopoih - kerepas      61. dabiah - dabih

58. indaruih - indarus       62. sangiah - sangih

59. kacimuih - kacimus       63. bangih - bengis

60. tampuih - tampus       64. kikih - kikis

Data (57) BMBI happens the changes the word karopoih the first syllable ka becomes ke, ro the second term becomes re, and poih becomes pas the third syllable of the phrase which begins consonant / p / in karopoih word becomes kerepas 'broke' while the data (58-60) change of final syllable uih that begins consonant / d /, / c /, and / p / from the word indaruih, kacimuih, and tampuih to be us word indarus `cock fighting', kacimus 'mock', and tampus 'yellow reddish', diphthong / ui / accompanied by consonant / h / being / u / accompanied by consonant / s / preceded by consonant / r /, / m /, / p /, / b /, / ng /. However, the data (61) became dabiah to be dabih 'slaughtered' and(62) sangiah become sangih 'glut,' the changing occurs in the syllable bangih end with iah that begins consonant / b / and / ng / in biah syllable and ngiah syllable and become bih and ngih into ngis that begins consonant / ng / as the nuklus. The data 63 and 64 bangih to be bengis 'angry' and kikih becomes kikis 'run out', the changing occurs in the second consonant / h / syllable in ngih syllable to be ngis and first syllable ba vowel / a / becomes be vowel / e / as a nuklus. Subsequent data changes are in the following vowels and consonants below:

65. racak - recak      70. saro - sara

66. rado - reda      71. tundo - tunda

67. salang - selang       72. tiago - tiaga

68. dunsanak - dansanak       ;73. kalubik - kalubak

69. sako - saka       74. babatok - babotok

The data 65 and 66 are voweled / a / become vowel / e / in the first syllable of ra word racak to be re to the word recak 'sitting astride on horse' as nuklus begins by the consonant / r / the word rado becomes reda 'almost stopped' begins consonant / d / occurs on the second syllable do to be da. Data (67) salang becomes selang 'borrow' nuklus interval of vowel change / a / into vowel / e / lies in the first syllable of si into se as the nuklus begins by consonant / s /. Data (68) dunsanak become dansanak 'relatives' vocal changes / u / becomes vowels / a / in the first syllable dun and dan as nuklus witht the starting point consonant / d /. The data (69-72) sako becomes saka 'mother's family', saro being sara 'asks for consideration', tundo becomes tunda 'something is pulled behind the boat with a rope', tiago becomes tiaga 'commerce', changing occurs on vowel / o / being the vowel / a / the second syllable becomes ko to be ka, ro becomes ra, do become da, go becomes ga in the third syllable as nuklus a starting point by consonant / k /, / r /, / d /, / g /. The data (73) of the kalubik becomes kalubak 'peeled', the third syllable bik becomes bak which beginning with the consonant / b / and vowel changes / i / to be vowel / a / as the nuklus and consonant / k /. (74) babatok becomes babotok , vocal changes / a / becomes vowel / o / on second syllable as the nuklus. Furthermore, vowel and consonant changes in the following data:

75. kulimek - kulimat       81. singkop - singkak

76. kabek - kabat       82. ulik - ulit

77. cangok - cangap       83. garik - garit

78. jajok - jejap       84. radang - redut

79. lindok - lindap       85. sikek - sisir

80. tangek - tangap       86. gasan - gasang

Data (75) and (76) there is a change of vowel / e / become / a / as nuklus with consonant / k / being consonant / t / as the koda on the third syllable mek from the word kulimek becomes mat the word kulimat 'frugality' and the second syllable bek the word kabek to be bat kabat 'kin/tie' each words starting by the consonant / m / and / b /. The data (77- 79) the second syllable ngok word cangok, jok word jajok, dok word lindok becomes ngap word cangap 'greedy', jap word jejap `disguise', dap word lindap 'dim', changes occur in vocals / o / accompanied the consonant / k / being / a / accompanied by the second consonant / p / syllable ending with the ok being changed to ap as the koda starting with the consonant / ng /, / j /, / d / but the data (80), the change occurs on the second syllable tangek becomes tanggap `holding' changes happen to second syllable ngek into ngap as koda, vowel / e / accompanied by consonant / k / becomes vowel / a / accompanied by consonant / p /, except (81) singkop becomes singkak 'singkap', the syllable of kop becomes kak a change takes place in the nuklus and the koda on the syllable ending op into ak. The data (82) and (88) ulik and garik become ulit 'do not want to pay debts' and garit 'movement', changes occur when the syllables of lik and rik change into lit and rit syllables beginning with consonant / l /, and / r /. The changes of ulik turns to ulit occur on consonant / k / becomes consonant / t / as koda. The data (84) radang becomes redut 'irritated' change in the first syllable ra of vowel / a / to re vowel / e / as the second syllable and dang becomes dut as the nuklis and koda, only consonant / d / unchanged. The data 85 sikek turns into sisir 'insert', the total change of kek and sir as ONK (onset, nuklus, and koda) and data 86 gasan into gasang 'hasty', the second syllable change beginning by the consonant / s / san consonant / n / being sang / ng / as koda.

Perpetual phoneme BMBI

Perpetual phoneme occurs when the underlying form is not complete and does not change in the following data.

87. awai - awai       91. jangkang - jangkang

88. balun - balun       92. kuyu - kuyu

89. cilok - cilok       93. lalah - lalah

90. dongkak - dongkak       94. rasan - rasan

In the data (87-94) there are some BMBI phoneme consolidation data representing data on the absorption element of BMBI. The data is unchanged and the meaning in BI awai `holding', balun 'rolling', cilok 'stealing', dongkak 'crashing', jangkang 'dead', kuyu 'timid', lalah 'chasing', and rasan ` stale' '.

4. Conclusions and Suggestions

Based on the discussion in the process of formation of Minangkabau language absorption element in Indonesian language can be concluded that there are four types of morphophonemic formation, namely the appearance and changes of phonemes, phonemic changes and changes, phoneme changes, and phoneme pengekalan. Based on the pattern (1) the appearance and phoneme changes vary, as the consonant / h / appears at the beginning of the syllable with the vowel / o / vowel / a /; appearance of consonant / n / and / h / in the middle of syllable with vowel change / o / being / a /; and the appearance of the vowel / a / to / ar / at the end of the syllable with the vowel / a / and vowel / e / changes in the first syllable. (2) releasing consonant / h / at the end of syllable accompanied by change of diphthong / ua / into vowel / u /. (3) The final change of syllable is in / ia / becomes / ir /; / ua / being / ur /; / uik / being / ut /; / iak / being / ek / (except); / iah / be / ih /; / uah / being / uh /; / oang / being / ong /; / money / being / ung /; iang being / ing /; / oih / being / as /; / uih / being / us /; / iah / be / ih /; / ih / being / is /. (4) Phoneme consolidation in the absorption element of BMBI does not occur deletion, appearance, or phoneme changes. This research needs to be continued in morphology and syntax studies.

References

1 

Chaer, A. (1993). Pembakuan Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

2 

Badudu, J.S. (1993). Cakrawala Bahasa Indonesia I. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama

3 

Tim Penyusun Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (1996). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka

4 

Chaer, A. (2009). Fonologi Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

5 

Tim Penyusun Kamus Bahasa Minangkabau-Indonesia Balai Bahasa Padang Pembinaan dan Badan Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (2012). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka

6 

Sudaryanto. (2015). Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa. Jakarta: Sanata Dharma University press

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