KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 653–663

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1. Introduction

In the service industry, employees who make direct contact with consumers are representatives of the organization and the quality of services offered by the organization. Construction Services Company or contractor is one of the agencies that prioritize services. This requires all HR construction service companies (managers, executors, foremen, builders and workers) to show a behavior that reflects excellent service while working. In the construction service industry, the workers are the spearheads of the construction service company, in this case called as the contractor, is one of the key services. This makes the behavior of artisans, workers and foremen play an important role in providing services. Workers and builders in an infrastructure project directly interact to serve various instructions both from the foreman, implementer, manager and owner (project owner) who are highly expected to be able to display organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at work.

OCB as individual voluntary behavior that is indirectly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and aggregate the effectiveness function of an organization in an aggregate manner [13]. voluntarily the intention is that the behavior is not part of the job description requirement or the conditions of the employee's employment contract with the organization, but rather the behavior that comes from the voluntary choice of the individual and if it has not done, it is free from punishment. According [9], OCB is also able to improve efficiency in service, customer satisfaction, corporate image and later which ultimately leads to the achievement of expected performance. Several factors to achieve good service quality for service providers is to foster sincerity, a feeling of happiness and the emergence of a culture where employees will work together to help each other to give their best to customers [12].

OCB can be influenced by several factors, including job satisfaction, work commitment, role perception, leadership behavior [7]. To bring about behavior as expected, organizations need leaders who are aware of the importance of these behaviors to influence and direct their employees to bring up OCB behavior. A leader must have a particular leadership style that able to support and continue to develop OCB. That states transformational leadership can make subordinates more involved and caring for their work, devotes much attention and time to their work, and become less attentive to their personal interests [2]. Transformational leaders can make their subordinates want to do something more than their obligations. It stated that leaders who become models for their subordinates can improve OCB in several ways [18]. Leaders who provide examples to do OCB motivate their subordinates to do OCB. The leader can be an example of someone who is consistent between words and actions will also be liked by his subordinates. The feelings of trust and trust of the subordinates itself will increase the additional effort of the subordinates to achieve the goals set by the company. This is in line with the statement [3] that trust in leaders can increase the tendency of subordinates to do OCB.

OCB is a behavior that reflects the organizational commitment of employees to their organizations [4]. Employees who have OCB will work harder and want to work more than what they are obliged to do. Employees who apply increased efforts to work hard for the company, accept the goals and principles of the company, and feel proud of the company, these are employees who have high organizational commitment [10].

2. Theoretical Thinking Framework and Hypothesis Formulation

Transformational leadership refers to leaders who move their followers beyond their personal interests through ideal influences or charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individual considerations [2].

Organizational commitment is the extent to which employees identify with and engage in certain organizations [11]. Committed employees are willing and able to exceed the minimum requirements of their duties and devote more of their personal resources (eg, time, effort, and work effort) to the organization [17]. Construction workers represent a unique workforce because they are temporarily employed but their commitment and performance can have a decisive role in the successful delivery of project output and organizational effectiveness [16].

According to [13] OCB is an extra-role behavior or voluntary behavior outside of a job description that is not directly or explicitly recognized in the formal reward system and aggressively it can improve the function of organizational effectiveness.

OCB is a behavior that reflects the organizational commitment of employees to their organizations [4]. Organizational commitment as an attitude shown by employees towards a company where he always sides with his company and has a desire to maintain membership in the organization [1].

Effect of transformational leadership on OCB

Transformational leadership can make subordinates more involved and caring for their work, devote more attention and time to their work, and become less attentive to their personal interests [2]. Transformational leaders can make their subordinates want to do something more than their obligations. Leaders who demonstrate this kind of behavior are preferred and trusted by their subordinates. The feelings of trust and trust of the subordinates itself will increase the additional effort of the subordinates, in order to achieve the company's goals.

Leadership has an important role in the formation of OCB, based on the research of [14] directive leadership is negatively associated on the contrary, supportive leadership is positively associated with

OCB. All leadership style variables (charismatic, transactional, and transformational) have a positive influence on OCB and for transformational leadership and leadership styles have a positive and significant influence on OCB [8].

  • Hypothesis 1: Transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on OCB. That Hypothesis shown in Figure 1.

Effect of organizational commitment to OCB

OCB is a behavior that reflects the organization of employees towards their organizations [4]. Employees who have OCB will work harder and want to work more than what they are obliged to. Employees who apply increased efforts to work hard for the company, accept the goals and principles of the company, and feel proud of the company, these are employees who have high organizational commitment [10].

Based on research conducted [15], organizational commitment is a strong antecedent of OCB because it has a positive and significant relationship to OCB.

  • Hypothesis 2: Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on OCB. The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment to OCB. That Hypothesis shown in Figure 1.

  • Hypothesis 3: Transformational Leadership and organizational commitment simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on OCB. That Hypothesis shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Conceptual diagram.

fig-1.jpg

3. Research Methods

Data analysis method

The data analysis tool used in this study is the SPSS Ver 19 software using Multiple Linear Regression. Stages of validity testing is using Pearson product moment correlation technique with a significance level of 5% and if the calculation of r value is greater than the value of r table and r count value is greater than r critical then the element is said to be valid. Instrument reliability testing with Crobanch Alpha formulation, variable is considered reliable if it gives a Cronbach Alpha value > 0.7 and is considered less reliable if the Cronbach Alpha value is < 0.6. The assumption tested in this study is the assumption of normality. Normality Test is carried out to find out whether the independent variable and dependent variable are normally distributed, the way to know a research variable is normally distributed or not by looking at the distribution of data on a diagonal line in the normality test [5]. The next test is a test of multicolinearity. Multicollinearity test aims to determine whether the regression model found a relationship between independent variables. A good regression model should not have a relationship between fellow independent variables how to find out whether there is multicollinability in the regression model is to see the value of Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and tolerance value is if the VIF value > 1.0 and the Tolerance value < 0.10 then there is a problem of multicollinerity (Ghozali, 2011).

While the autocorrelation assumption is not tested because the data is not a time series data (data is sorted by time) hence, no need to test the autocorrelation assumption. Likewise the linearity was not tested because the interdependent variables used in this study were not interrelated. Then the simultaneous significance test, if the F count value > FTabel then the hypothesis is accepted If the F count

< FTabel then the hypothesis is rejected. Finally Partial Significance Test (t test), if the value of t count > t table then the hypothesis is accepted. If the value of t count < t table then the hypothesis is rejected.

4. Research Result

Validity test results and reliability of research instruments

The research instrument in the form of questionnaires distributed to respondents consisted of questions from each variable, then each question was correlated with the Pearson Corelation method with a significant level of 5%. From the results of the validity test, all research variables are valid, meaning that the value of r counts > r Table and > r is critical for all variables.

Reliability test results

Based on the results of the reliability test on the research instrument, it can be concluded that the instrument used to measure the variables of transformational leadership, organizational commitment and OCB is reliable, because the Cronbach Alpha value of all variables > 0.70. Result reliability test shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Result Reliability Test.


Variable Alpha Cronbach Information
transformational leadership (X1) 0,91 Reliable
organizational commitment (X2) 0,93 Reliable
OCB (Y) 0,95 Reliable
Source: Data processed (2018)

Normality test results

The normality test can be seen from the probability plot. The basis for decision making is if the data spread around the diagonal line and approach the diagonal line then the data is said to be normally distributed or in other words the regression model has fulfilled the assumption of normality. That shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Normality Test Results.

fig-2.jpg

Multicollinearity result

Multicollinearity does not occur, shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Multicollinearity Instrument Result.


Model Collinearity Statistics Information
Tolerance VIF
transformational leadership .786 1.272 Not Multicollinearity
organizational commitment .786 1.272 Not Multicollinearity
Source: Data processed (2018)

To explain the magnitude of the role of the independent variable on the dependent variable, a coefficient of termination analysis will be performed, which is an analysis of the diversity of the total OCB (Y) variable values that can be explained by the two independent variables, for more details the coefficient of determination in this study can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3

Results of the Determination Coefficient Calculation.


Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .982a .964 .962 1.43485
Source: Data processed (2018)

The number R2 or the coefficient of determination for this research model of 0.964 was not used in this study to determine the role of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment to the formation of OCB because this value always increases when there are other independent variables, the values used in this study to determine changes OCB (Y) is the value of Adjusted R2 because this value can go up or down when there are additional independent variables, the increase or decrease in the Adjusted R2 value depends on how much influence the independent variable can have on OCB. The number of adjusted R2 in this study amounted to 0.962 means that the cause of the emergence of OCB employees in construction companies was caused by the influence of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment by 96.2% while the rest was caused by other factors not included in this study. This is in line with the theory presented by Organ (1997) which says that OCB is a free individual behavior, meaning that there is no single cause that can cause the emergence of OCB.

Results of the test of the effect of transformational leadership and organizational commitment to OCB partially

Hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 2 are examining the effect of transformational leadership (X1) and organizational commitment (X2) variables on OCB (Y) employees partially, this test is done by comparing the value of t count with t table value with the following 5% significance level table partial test results of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment to OCB can be seen in the Table 4.

Table 4

Partial Test of Transformational Leadership Variables and Organizational Commitment to OCB.


Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) .397 2.253 .063 .176 .862
Kepemimpinan Transformasional .041 .026 1.544 .134
Komitmen .918 .040 .951 23.210 .000
a. Dependent Variable: OCB
Source: Data processed (2018)

Hypothesis 1 is a partial test (t test) transformational leadership variable (X1) against OCB is done by comparing the t count of transformational leadership variables of 1.544 with a t table value of 2.051 indicating that the t count value is smaller than the value of t table so that it can be stated that variable (X1) that is transformational leadership does not affect employees' OCB partially. The conclusion for hypothesis 1 is that the transformational leadership role applied by the leaders of construction companies proved to have no influence in shaping employee OCB. Different research results were conducted by [8] which stated that transformational leadership had a positive and significant influence on OCB. This study answers the results of previous studies, [6] show that transformational leadership has no significant influence on OCB.

Hypothesis 2 is a partial test of organizational commitment variable (X2) carried out by comparing the value of t arithmetic variable organizational commitment of 23.210 with a t table value of 2.051 indicating that the calculated t value is greater than the value of t table so that it can be stated that the organizational commitment variable has a positive influence and the significance of employee OCB partially, the results of this test prove the hypothesis 2. Based on the partial test data the organizational commitment variables have been shown to have an influence in shaping employee OCB, meaning that the organizational commitment of employees has been shown to influence the OCB of employees.

Test results of simultaneous influence of transformational leadership and organizational commitment to OCB

Hypothesis H1 testing, which is testing the effect of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment on OCB simultaneously. The magnitude of the effect of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment simultaneously on OCB is determined by looking at the value of F in the Anova test then comparing it with the value of F table with a significance level of 5%. Result shown in Table 5.

Table 5

Test Results of Simultaneous.


Model Sum of Square Df Mean Square F Sig
Regression 1503.780 2 751.890 365.211 .000b
Source: Data processed (2018)

The data in the table shows that the calculated F value is 365.211 while the F value of 3.35 is the comparison between the calculated F values and the F table . The table shows that the calculated F value

is greater than the F value. Thus, it can be concluded that transformational leadership and organizational commitment have a positive effect and significant to OCB employees simultaneously.

Based on the results of the simultaneous test data above, it can be concluded that the hypothesis1 of simultaneous testing of transformational leadership variables applied by the leadership of construction companies and the joint implementation of organizational commitment held by employees has been proven to have an influence in forming positive and significant employee Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). it means that the more frequent and appropriate transformational leadership roles played by company leaders and the implementation together with organizational commitment held by employees is proven to have an influence on the formation of employee sense of belonging to the company, the sense of citizenship is very important for every employee to demonstrate performance and loyalty to company. The results of the simultaneous influence of transformational leadership and organizational commitment on OCB prove the theory presented by: [13] and [14] which states that transformational leadership and organizational commitment simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on OCB organizational members.

5. Limitations of Research

The scope of the research is only limited to construction companies with a limited population of 30 people in 4 (four) companies. This has not been fully represented by several companies in the DKI Jakarta area. This study only examines the influence of transformational leadership variables and organizational commitment on OCB, does not examine the causes of OCB on employees so there are many other variables that can be explored and associated with OCB for employees such as job satisfaction, organizational culture, employee and organizational productivity, individual behavior and employee competencies that were not explained in more depth in this study. The variables causing the occurrence of OCB that have not been discussed in this study are supported by the theory by [13] and [14] which states that one of the causes of employee OCB is individual behavior, character of work and work related to competence, organizational character and leadership role.

6. Conclusions

Transformational leadership and organizational commitment have a positive and significant effect on employee OCB simultaneously. Transformational leadership does not affect employees' OCB partially. Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on OCB employees partially.

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