KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 573–578

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1. Introduction

The size and proportion of human body shape are important factors in producing clothing. The different sizes and standards used by the ready-to-use clothing industry have become the basis for trying to find dependencies, which clearly and accurately describe the size and proportion of various parts of the human body for example in relation to its growth. At present most countries have their own classification system [1].

Indonesia as a country with the largest Muslim population in the world actually has a national standard measure which is a reference for the ready to wear industry as a guideline in producing clothing that applies nationally and is applied by the fashion industry, both large and small industries. The size standards of women's clothing in the Indonesian market, especially in Jakarta, are very varied despite using the same standard size, both clothing produced by small, medium and large-scale industries, causing most Indonesians to prefer fitting before deciding to buy, of course it is one of the obstacles in today's digital era.

2. Methods

The method used is the mixed methods with a sequential mixed methods strategy approach that refers to a sequential exploratory strategy. Data collection techniques through observation, interviews and questionnaires. Observations were carried out in the three largest shopping centers in Jakarta to obtain Muslim fashion size data based on shapes, materials and prices. Interviews were carried out through industry representatives and designer associations to obtain data on how to measure clothing used and compare the classification systems available in various Muslim fashion products and questionnaire data to see the level of community satisfaction with Muslim ready to wear clothing. Data analysis used using two approaches, namely qualitative approaches and quantitative approaches.

3. Result

The standard size for making ready to wear clothing is used to represent general body shapes /sizes. Determination of standard measures set by several countries refers to several aspects, including improved living conditions, physical activity and better medical care [10]. There are many different clothing measurement systems throughout the world, including:

  • The standard of European clothing size [2,3], the standard of this size is determined based on the size of the body circumference and height. This standard has not functioned optimally because it cannot yet represent the size of the European community and therefore has not been used as a whole

  • Standard US clothing sizes [4,5]. US clothing size standards were developed based on statistical data in the 1940-50s, which are now known as US catalog sizes. Catalogs have been a measure of US standards since the 1980s. According to this catalog, the size of women is divided into various types, depending on overall height and relative breast height and pelvic height.

  • Standard British clothing sizes [6]. The UK has a women's clothing standard published by the British Standards Institute in 1982 - standard BS 3666: 1982. This standard is indicated by numbers for sizes from 8 to 32 quoted in centimeters, but this standard is rarely used by manufacturers because it defines the size of the pelvis and breast only in a limited range, and there is no requirement for manufacturers or stores to use British Standards, this results in various indications for the same garment size from different sellers.

Indonesia is one country that does not yet have standard clothing sizes. Based on observations, it shows that every Muslim fashion industry has a different standard size. Determination of the use of standard sizes that are the reference in production is carried out based on the shape/design and materials used. Muslim women's clothing based on the form of design is divided into the form of a sleeveless robe without cuts or with pieces of waist line / empire line, tunic, caftan and abaya. Muslim fashion women use standard sizes S, M, L, XL, 2L to 4L, and all size sizes that generally represent sizes M and L to XL. The difference in the size of each standard is known as the interval. Standard S size has 2-4 cm intervals on standard size L, as well as other standard size intervals. The price difference also determines the difference in the size of the same standard. Split prices are economical ( < 300 thousand), medium (350 - 750 thousand) and expensive ( > 800 thousand). Muslim fashion robes with economical price categories, generally have smaller size standards (with the same standard size) compared to the standard size category ( > 1 million rupiah), the difference in size lies in the circumference of the body, waist circumference and length of clothing. Difference interval reaches 4-6 cm. Materials commonly used in making Muslim clothing Material used does not provide a significant interval of difference. The following standard size tables are used by several garments in Jakarta.

Table 1

Standard Size of Muslim Clothing.


Female S M L XL XXL XXXL
Front width 36 38 40 42 44 46
Chest size 90 94 98 102 106 110
Waist size 78 82 86 90 94 98
Hip circumference 94 98 102 106 110 114
Arm length 24/56 24/57 24/58 26/60 27/61 27/61
Length size
Blouse 68 70 72 74 74 74
Dress 98 100 102 105 107 110
Robe 125 126 127 130 133 135

Fashion products using custom-made standards are used by some Indonesian designers. The standard size of production refers to the body size of the survey conducted to represent body shape in general. The standard bust size holder (BH) is widely used by some entrepreneurs and designers as a reference in making clothes, such as the table below

Table 2

The standard bust size holder (BH) is widely used by some entrepreneurs and designers.


No. Type of Size SIZE
36 38 40 42 44 45 46 48 50 52 54
1 circumference of the body 81 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 118 120
2 waist size 66 67 68 72 78 80 84 90 96 100 104
3 hip circumference 91 94 95 102 106 110 114 118 122 126 130
4 front length 29 32 33 36 36 38 38 39 41 41 41
5 long back 35 37 37 39 42 42 42 42 42 43 43
6 side length 17 18 19 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24
7 front width 29 32 33 36 38 38 38 39 41 41 41
8 back width 30 31 33 33 35 35 36 36 37 38 39
9 shoulder length 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14
10 skirt length 72 23 74 75 76 76 78 78 78 79 79
11 long cocktail clothes 77 78 79 80 81 81 83 83 83 84 84
12 long party clothes 102 103 104 105 106 108 108 108 108 109 109

Muslim fashion standards, both industry and associations engaged in fashion emphasize that the determination of size is based on consumers. Measurements are made to improve customer satisfaction. Consumer surveys regarding the level of satisfaction of purchasing fashion products show that customer satisfaction is obtained if they get suitable fashion products. The level of suitability of clothing products is influenced by the components of clothing use, function or comfort and preferences of the wearer. Appropriate size standards and quality standards are important in determining the quality of the garment industry which will have an impact on customer satisfaction. The results of the questionnaire show that the standard sizes of M (Medium) and L (Large) occupy the highest percentage of consumers selected in buying Muslim clothing, this is due to public perceptions of Muslim clothing that are larger than body size (loose), while standard XL or 2L sizes and a larger size, chosen by consumers with some consideration to revise the Busan form before wearing it, because it is generally large in size, desirable for obese women with body circumference, waist circumference and large hip circumference, but not accompanied by height and the length of the arm is commensurate. Although some consumers have knowledge of the sizes used by garment industries, consumers choose to match the garment size printed on the label by trying it (fitting) before deciding to buy.

Standard sizes based on numbering labels (numbers) are rarely found in the textile market and some malls in Jakarta. People are more familiar with the standard sizes of categories such as S, M, L etc. The label size standard with numbering in Indonesia refers to the standard size of the results of independent industry surveys, therefore each garment industry label has an interval of size differences in each production. Muslim clothing for women generally do not use the standard numbering label size, but use the S standard category, M.L, etc.

4. Discussion

Standard body size is used for making custom-made clothing based on individual requests, so this standard is generally used by designers in producing fashion. While the garment size standards are influenced by trend design and market demand. The standard size of the garment can change according to the design trend and material used. The production of garment garments has different size intervals in the same size standard. Standard size S (Small), has a size of body circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference and length of clothing that is different from other garments. The standard size of all sizes is used for Muslim women's clothing with a canal design without any cuts on the waist line or empire line. The size of all size refers to the size of S to L, but there are several sizes of all sizes that only represent the size of M and L. The use of the size of all sizes is usually adjusted to the use of certain material materials that have elastic properties, which can be adjusted to body shape.

5. Conclusion

Muslim women's standard sizes generally use standard sizes of garments with sizes S, M, L etc. and all size sizes that represent the size of the consumer body. This size standard is determined based on market surveys that are influenced by the design and use of materials that also influence the selling price of production. The production of garment fashion has an interval of size differences in the same standard. The difference intervals in each size have different intervals, such as the interval of body circumference size and length of clothing, therefore Interval refers to the difference in standard sizes, by 2-6 cm, so even though some consumers have knowledge of the sizes used by garment industries, consumers prefer to match the size of the garment printed on the label (fitting) before deciding to buy.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank their colleague for their contribution and support to the research. They are also thankful to all the reviewers who gave their valuable inputs to the manuscript and helped in completing the paper.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

References

1 

Monika bogusławska, Analysis of the contemporary problem of garment sizes. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267776709

2 

Krawczyński M.,Wysocka-Gryczka K., Czarnecka A., Walkowiak J., Krzyżaniak A. “The direction of physical development changes of preschool children in Poznan city (Poland) between 1970 – 2000”, Medical News, Poznan 2001, 70, 10-11, p. 1120 – 1130.

3 

EN 13402 European Clothing Size Standards. Definition for the Clothing Industry presented by Apparel Search available from www.apparelsearch.com/definitions/miscellaneous/EN13402_European_Clothing_Si ze_Standard.htm, (20.04.2010).

4 

PN-EN 13402 “Size designation of clothing” (03.2002).

5 

“Clothing sizes. ISO standards” available from www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clothing_sizes (22.04.2010).

6 

British Standard 3666: 1982, Size Designation of Women's Wear available from www.tradingstandards.gov.uk/towerhamlets/size.htm (24.04.2010).

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ISSN: 2518-668X