KnE Social Sciences | The 1st International Conference on South East Asia Studies (ICSEAS 2016) | pages: 484–493

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1. Introduction

Poverty has always been a serious concern and has been the focus of the MDGs initiated by the United Nations [UN,1]. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) first launched focused on overcome global poverty. Focus on dealing with poverty continued to be the main agenda in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Some point SDGs declaration stated that "We recognize that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development" [2].

Poverty is often found in people with disabilities [1]. Disability is a development issue, because of its bidirectional link to poverty: disability may increase the risk of poverty and poverty may increase the risk of disability [3]. Disability suffered poverty by the direct and indirect result of the exclusion and marginalization, caused by stigma and negative prejudices about disability, and one of the stigmas growing in education [4]. The UN report showed that 90 % of all children with disabilities in developing countries still do not attend school, and the adult's disabled literacy rate predicted only 1 % [2]. Unequal educational opportunities for persons with disabilities create employment opportunities for persons with disabilities is also limited. Limited employment opportunities for persons with disabilities became one of the causes poverty experienced by persons with disabilities.

Educational opportunities discrimination for children with disabilities can be seen from an existence of special schools in Indonesia. The existences of entrance test in primary schools in Indonesia also opened up opportunities for the students with special needs marginalization. Students who can enter at the primary schools that implement selection, only students who are able to take the test well. However, for those students with special needs, which have limited capabilities, it would be very difficult to qualify. Research conducted by Karwono et al. [5] also find primary school students with disabilities who rejected by the school teacher. The reason for rejection is because teachers do not want to be bothered in educating students with special needs.

Efforts to reduce marginalization for disabilities in the educational system actually has been pursued with the declaration of Salamanca in 1994. Salamanca declaration is a milestone in the establishment of inclusive education. Inclusive education confirms that children with special needs basically entitled to have an education as normal children without discriminated [4]. Firdaus [6] explains that the main objective of inclusive education can be seen from the translation of declaration Salamanca article number two. Article number 2 on Salamanca declaration explaining that regular schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective way to combat discrimination, creating an open society, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; more than that, inclusive schools provide effective education to the majority of children and improve efficiency so as to reduce the cost for the entire system. It concluded that the main goal of inclusive education is to combat discrimination with disabilities.

Indonesia became one of the countries that ratified the Salamanca charter. The impact of the ratification of the Salamanca charter is the issuance of Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System who explained that the delivery of education for learners with disabilities or have extraordinary intelligence can be held on the general preliminary school [4]. After issued Act No. 20 of 2003, Indonesian government began designated and organizes inclusive education in Indonesia.

The implementation of inclusive education in schools in Indonesia is one of the efforts to eliminate the marginalization of persons with disabilities in the educational system. Whether the inclusive education program in Indonesia can be effective in eliminating the marginalization of persons with disabilities in the educational system.

2. The Development of Rules on Disability in Indonesia.

Indonesia has made rules for people with disabilities in a long period. Even two years after Indonesia's independence, precisely in 1947, the rules relating to persons with disabilities has been published. The existence of this rule, indicating that in fact, the Indonesian government's attention to persons with disabilities has been around a long time. Adioetomo et al. [7] summarize the published rules regarding disability that can be seen in Table 1. The terminology used by the Indonesian government on the matter with disabilities also change according to issuance bari legislation. Starting with the title "bercacat" in 1947, "orang-orang yang dalam kondisi kekurangan jasmani atau rokhani” in 1954," Tuna" in 1974,"Penderita cacat" in 1992, "Penyandang kelainan/ abnormality" in 1991 and 2003, and most recently is the terminology "anak berkebutuhan khusus" in 2003.

Table 1

History of the publication of the law by the Indonesian government related to persons with disabilities.


Terminology Meaning (English) Documents
(Ber)cacat With disability(ies) Undang-undang (Law) Nomor 33 Tahun 1947 tentang Ganti Rugi Buruh yang Kecelakaan (on compensation for work-related accident) Undang-undang (Law) Nomor 4 Tahun 1979 tentang Kesejahteraan Anak
Orang-orang yang dalam keadaan kekurangan jasmani atau rokhaninya Persons who have a physical or mental disability Undang-undang (Law) Nomor 12 tahun 1954 tentang dasar-dasar pendidikan dan pengajaran di sekolah untuk seluruh Indonesia (Fundamental Principles for Teaching and Learning for All Indonesian Schools)
Tuna such as in tunarungu (deaf) Orang yang terganggu atau kehilangan kemampuan untuk mempertahankan hidupnya Javanese: loss, disability Bahasa: without, lacking Persons who are disturbed or have lost the ability to survive Undang-undang (Law) Nomor 6 Tahun 1974 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan Pokok Kesejahteraan Sosial (on principal provisions in social welfare)
Penderita cacat Persons suffering from disabilities Peraturan Pemerintah (Government Regulation) Nomor 36 Tahun 1980 tentang Usaha Kesejahteraan Sosial Bagi Penderita Cacat (Welfare Services for Persons Suffering from Disability) Undang-Undang (Law) Nomor 14 Tahun 1992 tentang Lalu Lintas Angkutan Jalan (on ground traffic)
Penyandang kelainan Kelainan fisik, emosional, mental, intelektual, dan/atau sosial Abnormalities Physical, emotional, mental, intellectual, and/or social abnormalities Peraturan Pemerintah (Nomor 72 Tahun 1991 tentang Pendidikan Luar Biasa (on special education) Undang-undang (Law) Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (on the national system of education)
Anak berkebutuhan khusus (anak luar biasa) Children with special needs (special needs children) Surat Edaran Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Menengah (Circular Letter of Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education) Nomor 380/G.06/MN Tahun 2003 Perihal: Pendidikan Inklusi (on inclusive education).
Source: [7]

Changes in terminology regarding the definition of disability, showing that the understanding and definition of disability in Indonesia is constantly changing. First, the definition of disability only covers physical deficiencies, and then developed in the scope of non-physical shortcomings, and lastly, the definition of children with special needs, disability definition includes not only the disadvantages but also the advantages of above-average normal children.

Treatment for persons with disabilities in the Indonesia education system is also changing. In 1991, Government Regulation No. 72 in 1991 regulates the operation of Special Education in Indonesia. Along with the development of special schools/Sekolah Luar Biasa (SLB), persons with disabilities have the opportunity to attend school but separated from normal children. Implementation of SLB in Indonesia has several drawbacks. Based on research Karwono et al. [5] the parents actually reluctant to send their children to SLB. Because when children attend SLB, parents will get a negative stigma in the community [5]. The existence of SLB at the primary and secondary level of education is also very limited. Based on the data, SLB known in Indonesia as many as 1 924 schools, far different from the total number of elementary schools 146 826 schools [8]. Parents are reluctant to put their children in special schools due to the absence of SLB that close from home, unlike the primary school which existence is in every district in Indonesia [5].

Government regulation about student with disability changes after Indonesia ratified the Salamanca charter. The Indonesian government issued Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System. Act No. 20 of 2003 explained that the delivery of education for learners with disabilities or have extraordinary intelligence can be held in public elementary school. Since the publication of the law, Indonesia start proclaimed the establishment of inclusive schools. Beginning in 2004, by holding a national convention which resulted in Bandung Declaration commitment "Indonesia towards inclusive education" [9]. Then followed in 2005, held an international symposium in Singapore that produces Bukit Tinggi Recommendations which among others emphasize the need to continue to develop programs of Inclusive Education as one way to ensuring that all children acquire the good quality education [9].

The operation of inclusive schools able to expand the number of schools whose able to serve students with special needs. Author difficulty finding the total number of inclusive schools in Indonesia, because of the source data very limited. For comparison, the authors obtain the number of the inclusive school's data in the Central Java as many as 554 schools and special schools, 173 schools [10]. Based on these data, implementation of inclusive school in central Java is able to provide the addition of more than double the number of schools that can accommodate students with special needs. Increasing the number of schools to accommodate disabilities students provide more opportunity for disabilities students to attend school.

3. Implementation of Inclusive Education in Indonesia

Implementation of inclusive education in Indonesia provides an opportunity for students with special needs to be able to get an education in public schools. Indonesian government regulation expressly states that schools cannot reject the inclusive students due to a disability that is owned by the student [4]. Many legal bases which can be used to support the implementation of inclusive schools in Indonesia. Rudiyati describes several grounds can be used as guidelines for conducting inclusive schools in Indonesia, among others: (i) UU No. 4 of 1997 on Persons with Disabilities, particularly in Article 6 (paragraph 1): Every person with disabilities has the right to education in all units, lines, types and levels of education; (ii) UU No 23 of 2002 on the protection of children, especially in article 51: children with physical /or mental disabilities, given equal opportunities and accessibility to obtain regular education and exceptional education; (iii) UU Number 20 of 2003 on National Education System: including Article 12 (ayat 1.b): all students at any educational institution entitled to educational services in accordance with their talents, interests, and abilities [11].

Based on these results in the above, in Indonesia has a lot of runways to be used as the basis for the implementation of inclusive education. The rule applied by the Indonesian government actually conform to the main spirit of inclusive education expressed UNESCO, that all children have an equal opportunity to receive education in schools that near their homes [12]. However, due to the limitation of facilities, infrastructure and human resource on education in Indonesia, so many obstacles encountered in the implementation of inclusive schools in Indonesia.

Several studies have been conducted to see the picture of the implementation of inclusive schools in Indonesia. Wibowo [4] concludes some research that related to inclusive schools in Metro Lampung, the implementation of inclusive schools in Metro Lampung still develop and in some cases are still not fit in with the expected implementation of inclusive education by the UN through the declaration of Salamanca. The discrepancy is due to several schools still limit themselves, they would only accept students with special needs in a certain amount, which is due to limited school resources [4]. Some inclusive schools in Metro Lampung also do not have Individual Educational Program (IEP) for students with special needs, and the lack of specialized teachers who have expertise in special needs education [4].

Rudiyati [11] concluded inclusive education, especially in Yogyakarta is still not optimal. In terms of learners, there are many learners who bear disorders / special educational needs have not been able to enroll in the school closest to their home because not all public schools accepted the existence of children with disabilities / special educational needs [11]. From the educators terms, inclusive school teacher's profiles have not described a qualified inclusive schools teacher for children with disabilities/special educational needs adequately [11]. In terms of school facilities and infrastructure, infrastructure in inclusive schools is still considered adequate [11].

Research conducted by Firdaus [6] emphasized that the number of school participation students with special needs increased, in line with the program of inclusive education. However, the government should provide education for human resources in the educational environment, to be able to implement inclusive education in accordance with the aspired [6]. The Indonesian government must more earnestly in efforts to organize inclusive education in Indonesia [6].

4. Inclusive School, Positive Effect or Negative Effect?

Participation of students with special needs in public schools actually has a positive effect on the environment and the school community. Juhri et al. [13] found that children who have autism disorders in SMPN 2 Metro, proved to be a winner at various national championships. Thus, students who at first met with resistance from school teachers can be a schools pride [13]. Wibowo and Anjar [14] also found that children who have physical disabilities were able to develop good relationships with their classmates. In fact, the normal student is able to accept differences and develop empathy towards disability who experienced by classmates [14]. Students can learn to accept differences and develop empathy in school. When student learned to accept differences in school, then the student can apply it in social activities in the community. Other studies have found that children with special needs in inclusive schools do not have problems on developing self - esteem, children with special needs can develop self - esteem well [15].

Based on the above, it can be seen that the inclusive education does not have negative effects for children with special needs psychological functions development. In inclusive schools, children with special needs have the chance to mingle and socialize with their normal peers. The ability to mingle and socialize is essential for children adult life on community later on. Because in true life there is no specific community that exists only for individuals who have disabilities.

5. Conclusions

Inclusive education is actually able to provide opportunities for students with disabilities to have the opportunity to attend school. Limited amount of SLB can be overcome by increasing the number of inclusive schools so that students with disabilities in Indonesia have more opportunity to attend school. Inclusive school in Indonesia actually could be a solution for the marginalization of persons with disabilities to have access attending public education. However, some studies have found there are still many obstacles to conducting ideal inclusive schools in Indonesia. Limited facilities, infrastructure, and resources owned by the schools in Indonesia becomes one of negative factor implementing inclusive schools in Indonesia. Along with the economic growth in Indonesia and the serious attention of the Indonesian government in managing inclusive education, the inclusive school is expected could be an ideal school whose able to provide equal opportunities for persons with disabilities to education services as normal individuals.

References

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