When two or more people communicate with each other in speech, we can call the system of communication that they employ a code. In most cases that code will be something we may also want to call a language (Wardhaugh, 2006: 1). Setiyaningsih (2010: 58) further stated that all aspects of human life cannot be separated from the use of language as communication tools and the delivery of ideas because language has a very important role. Language as one of the elements of culture which is a system of sound combined with certain rules, which can cause meaning that can be received by everyone who speaks in that language and also language is used by community members who each have their own culture. It means that all of things can be delivered through the language.
Banjarese is a traditional language that has special characteristics for the speaker and has become a symbol of the identity of indigenous people of South Kalimantan, especially those that develop from generation to generation as their local languages. Therefore, they keep the identity of Banjarese. The phenomena of other local languages development in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut is the background of this research. The population of Tanah Laut Regency is dominated by Banjarese and Javanese. In addition, there are also tribes Madurese, Sundanese, Bugis, Tionghoa (Chinese Parit) and others. According to data (primary data) from some tribes in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut, the numbers of Banjar tribes are 90 %, Java tribes are 70%, Bugis tribes are 10%, Dayak tribes are 10%, Sunda Tribes are 5%, and the last Toraja tribes are 5%. The development would have an impact on the interaction between other students (using other language) and local students (using Banjarese) in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. The problem in this study is concerned with factors influencing the preservation of Banjarese among students of the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut.
Banjarese is one of the local languages in South Kalimantan, and also deserves to be discussed in this study. Based on the background presented, the researcher is interested to conduct research about Banjarese among Students of the State of Polytechnic of Tanah Laut in Tanah Laut regency, Pelaihari subdistrict. This research is focused on one aspect of sociolinguistic. The domain of language usage is observed from the familiarity domain, in which data is drawn from daily conversations between among students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut.
2. Literature Review
The applied literature review from this section will be reviewed that has impact on an outcome of language. The study of language maintenance and language shift is concerned with the relationship between degree of change for degree of stability) in language usage patterns, on one hand, and ongoing psychological, cultural, or social process, on the other, in population that utilize more than one speech variety for intra-group for inter-group purposes (Fishman, 1972: 109)
Fishman in Dweik and Nofal (2013: 93) sets forth the outline of language maintenance and shift as a field of inquiry by relating the language situation to extra-linguistic factors such as societal, cultural and psychological factors when different populations have contact with one another. Accordingly, it suggested and discussed three major topical subdivisions of this field:
• The habitual use of language at more than one point in time or space under conditions of intergroup contact.
• The antecedent, concurrent or consequent psychological, social and cultural processes and their relationship to stability or change in habitual language use.
• The behavior toward language in the contact setting, including directed maintenance or shift efforts.
Language maintenance is the degree to which an individual or grups continues to use their language, particulary in bilingual or multilingual area or among imigrant grup whereas language shift is the process by which a new language is acquired by new community usually resulting with the loss of the community's first language. Language maintenance refers to the situation where speech commuity continues to use its traditional language in the face of a host of condition that might foster a shift to another language.
If language maintenance does not occur, there can be several results. One is language death; speakers become bilingual, younger speakers become dominant in another language, and the language is said to die. The speakers or the community does not die, of course, they just become a subset of speakers of another language. The end result is language shift for the population, and if the language isn't spoken elsewhere, it dies.
Holmes stated that language can be maintained with some strategies, such as:
• A language can be maintained and preserved, when it's highly valued as an important symbol of ethnic identity for the minority group.
• If families from a minority group live near each other and see each other frequently, their interactions will help to maintain the language.
• For emigrate individuals from a minority group, the degree and frequency of contact with the homeland can contribute to language maintenance.
• Intermarriage within the same minority group is helpful to maintain the native language.
• Ensuring that the minority group language is used at formal settings such as schools or worship places will increases language maintenance.
• An extended normal family in which parents, children and grandchildren live together and use the same minority language can help to maintain it.
• Institutional support from domains such as education, law, administration, religion and the media can make a difference between the success and failure of maintaining a minority group language .
Jumharia (2014: 6) said that it is worthy to say that the tendencies of the Balinese people use their language in cultural activities because of some reasons, such as:
• Language as an ethnic identity encourages the Balinese people to use their language to show their identity.
• Prestige of using the language grows a positive attitude that is owned by the Balinese people also supports the maintenance of Balinese language.
• Status of the Balinese language also become one factor in maintaining language as it is known that Bali has been popular as a destination of tourism all over the world. Therefore, it makes the Balinese people are proud of using their language.
3. Research Method
Basrowi dan Sowandi (2008: 20) said that qualitative research is a type of research whose findings are not obtained through statistical procedures or other forms of calculation. Some of the data can be quantitative data, but the analysis is qualitative. The implementation of this research is qualitative. The data from this study described in qualitative descriptive method and this study conducted through field survey with interviews and observations. Sources of data in this study are students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan. The data source involves five students will be selected randomly in each Majoring (Technology Information, Industrial Technology Agriculture, Mechanical Engineering and Accounting) in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. The sources of data were information from each student. The data got about language use, factors contribute the way to maintain language from observation and interview that are given to the subject. This research just analyzed data that were not related to the numbers. The data were just the form of descriptions related to certain conditions based on some things that researched the field. Observations and interviews to subject were a way of obtaining research data. It is used to explore the data source and support the analysis. The respondents participated in this study were taken randomly; each was represented by respondents.
4. Result and Discussion
The State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut is one of college in Tanah Laut regency and there are so many tribes of students here. This college has some local languages used by students, they are Banjarese, Javanese, Bugis language, etc. The results reveal that the preservation of Banjarese in the State Polytechnic of Tanah laut is still very good (maintained by students), the possibility of a language shift is still relatively small. The language used by students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut is Banjarese. Although the development of other local languages spread around the college, they still used their own language, it was Banjarese. Based on the information from a respondent that was Banjar people also spoke Banjarese. And not a few of the students from the tribe of Java and usually used the Javanese, so when they joined other students who spoke Banjarese, they also used Banjarese as well.
Based on the observations conducted, factors influencing the preservation of Banjarese among students of the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut were:
• Language Status (identity)The use of Banjarese by some respondent was expressed through the students' spontaneous attitude toward their mother tongue, by measuring the level of comfort when communicating using their own language. Such attitudes affect their language choices as they continue to use Banjarese without changing their language with other languages.
• The Pride of the CultureAnother factor that influences the preservation of Banjarese among students at the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut is a factor of pride of the culture especially in using Banjarese. It means that the pride of their own local language because they have a willingness that their Banjarese was able to live and develop in the era of modernization, the pride to say it should always be developed especially to the students as the younger generation who became the next generation. A sense of pride in the culture of origin can also be an important factor in the preservation of language. If a person is proud of their culture, so they will show their culture to others.
• Activity in CollegeAnother thing that influences the preservation of Banjarese among students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut is the activity factor. In this case, the activity is the participation of student organization. One of them is Bisepol (Bina Seni Politeknik Negeri Tanah Laut) which contains many divisions. For example:From some of the activities that conducted in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut showed that they still maintained Banjarese through the art activities that they followed on college.
• The Numbers of Banjarese usersThe factor of the number of Banjarese users is also the influence of the preservation of Banjarese among students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. They always used Banjarese when communicated to others on college. It means that the value of prestige with language choices that used Banjarese among heterogenous students are higher level with other regional languages, it caused that in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut more using Banjarese. Most of the students at the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut only master Banjarese, so they just used the language. When communicating with students who were not Banjar people they still used Banjarese because they only mastered the vocabulary of Banjarese and only a small part of the students who used Banjarese. Mastery of dominant Banjarese influenced by majority of students spoke Banjarese and they knew other local languages but could not speak it.
• Solidarity among StudentsFactor solidarity with friends or in this case as well as social factors also greatly inluenced the preservation of Banjarese among students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. Banjarese that has a function as a means of communication is the language of instruction in interaction among students in the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. The use of Banjarese is used to show a sense of solidarity among students in order to establish familiar attitude among students. The intimate relationship to other students was also a form of the use of Banjarese.
The results revealed that Banjarese which took place among students at the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut was still going well (maintenanced by students), the possibility of language shift was relatively small. This happened because of some factors; Banjarese as the mother tongue as well as the identity of Banjar ethnic, the pride of the culture, the activity in college, the numbers of Banjarese user, and solidarity among students. This is because the students of the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut consistently used Banjarese according to the situation and condition.
Maintaining local language is not easy to apply especially for the younger generation. A sense of pride, comfortable and self-confidence underlies in maintaining the local language. It is reflected to the attitude in language maintenance among students at the State Polytechnic of Tanah Laut. Always using the language is their effort to keep the local language.