Novel is one form of literature that presents various images of human life shown by the author in written form. The problems potrayed in a novel would be a picture for the readers. In Novel problems are drawn more priority to human problems. Novel is also literary work that describes the real problems that occur in society. Real issues found in the community taken partly considered important and interesting then compiled into a beautiful articles. As a creative work, novel interesting and important to read because the novel contains about Information and learning.
Purwarno and Sitepu (2016: 53) state that literature in true sense of term is that a kind of writting which is charged with human interest, and characterized by permanence, colouring of imagination, and artistic embellishment. They also state that novel may be roughly defined as a long story in prose, meant primarily for entertainment, and presenting a realistic picture of life.
Literary works associated with psychology are important to research, because according to Wellek and Warren (1993: 108), Psychology helps in collecting researchers' sensitivity to reality, sharpened ability, observation, and giving opportunities to learn patterns that have not been reached before. As a symptom of psychology, psychology in literature contains the phenomena seen through the behavior of the characters. Thus, novels can be researched using the perspective of literary psychology.
Personality is the dynamic organization within the induvidual of those psychoppysical system that determine his characteristics behavior and though (Allport, 1961: 28)
The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique (Weinberg & Gould, 1999). The main theory for this research is “Psychology of Humanistic Personality” by Abraham Maslow in Schultz (1977) supported by the ideas that Humanism is a philosophical movement emphasizing the individual's personal value and centrality human values in general .
Here the researcher wants to analyze one of literary works that is Novel. The novel is entitled Padang Bulan, the novel with170 pages tells about the The personality of the main character. Maryamah or Enong, is a young girl who struggles to sustain life and fulfill her dream to keep his family out of starvation, and stupidity.
The Novel Dwilogi Padang Bulan is a novel themed about The Humanistic Personality of the main character. The main character in the Dwilogi Padang Bulan novel is a woman named Maryamah or Enong. Narrated in the novel dwilogi padang bulan Maryamah faces deep obstacles meeting the needs of her life due to poverty and labeling imposed on her by community in her residence that women not supposed to get lead and play chess like men. Overall the story in Novel Padang Bulan describes about The Humanistic personality of the main character in this case maryamah as the main character who is persistent and diligent in fulfilling the needs of her life.
Andrea hirata was born in East Belitung, Bangka Belitung province on October 24, 1967. His full name is Andrea Hirata Seman said Harun. Being a famous Novelist may never have been in Andrea Hirata's mind since childhood. Struggling to achieve higher education, it was difficult at that time. However, along with his struggle and endless hard work, Andrea Hirata was able to succeed as a writer of his childhood memoirs full of pain.
2. Literature Review
The author uses Abraham maslow's “Psychology of Humanistic Personality” Theory to analyze Padang Bulan Novel Written by Andrea Hirata. According to Maslow as quoted in Schultz (1977,62-64), there are five basic needs. They are the physiological needs, the safety needs, the bilongingness, and love needs, the esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. The description of the needs is as follows:
• Physiological needsThe most important of all basic needs are the needs for physical suirvival. These needs are the needs for food, liquid,shelter,sex,sleep and oxygen (qtd in Schultz1977 62). When a person extremely hungry she thinks only about food. She dreams of food,she remembers food, she thinks about food and she want only food. These needs must be fulfilled first before fulfilling the other needs.
• Safety needsThis fits in with our general notion of human development from childhood into adulthood. It is the needs to be secured and out of danger. People always try to avoid the dangerous thing especially related tp physical violence.
• Bilongingness and love needsWhen the psyologicsl and safety needs are satisfied, the other needs such as needs for love, affection and Belongingness also emerge. According to Maslow, love in volves a healthy, loving relationship between to people which include mutual trust, everybody needs love' therefore, the lack of love can stop the individual growth and his developmental of potential (1977).
• Self-esteem needsAccording to Maslow in Schultz (1977), there are two esteem needs. They are self-esteem and self-respect from other people. Self esteem includeds desire for confidence, competence mastery,adequaci,achievement, independence and freedom. Self-respect from other includes prestige, recognition, acceptance,attention, status, reputation, and apreciation. A person who has self-esteem is more confident and capable in doing his work. Without self-esteem one will have the feeling of inferiority and helplessness which can cause discouragement and possible neurotic behavior.
• Self-actualization needsMaslow in Schultz (1977) states these needs as the desire to become more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. “ What a man can be, he must be”. In short, it deals with with the identification of the psychological need for growt,development and utilization of potensial. This needs emerge after satisfaction of the love and esteem needs.
3. Research Method
This research is library research that uses descriptive qualitative research as design of the research. Jeane states “the aim of descriptive qualitative research is to clarify the nature of a phenomenon in a specified, static context while viewed from a specific,fixed perspective” (Jeane, 1999: 153)
The source of the data in this research consist of two types. There are primary data and secondary data. Khotari states “The primary data are those which collected a fresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character, The secondary data, on the other hand, are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process” (Khotari, 1990: 95). In this research, the primary data is the Novel Padang Bulan written by Andrea Hirata. The secondary data is documents, script and other relevant sources that are related to the topic.
The data collection procedures divide into some steps. The first step is the author observes the novel. Then the author reads the novel. next, the author is searching information that is related to the novel and the topic of this study also. After that the author underlines the Topic of the problem which are available in the novel. Next, the author clasifiece the topic of the problem.
After collecting the data,the author begins to analyze the topic. At the first time, the author analyzes Andrea Hirata's description of Maryamah' Humanistic Personality. Then the author searched for the power of attraction in this novel that made it so interesting. Finally, the author could discover Maryamah's Humanistic Personality and find out what Andrea Hirata wanted to say to the readers through his work.
To analyze the Personality of Humanistic of the first character, the author use content analysis as technique of analyzing the data. Khatori states “content- analysis consist of analysing the contents of all other verbal materials which can be either spoken or printed” (Khatori, 1990: 110).
The first character in Novel Padang Bulan is Maryamah or Enong. Maryamah was chosen because its there figures who are most involved with conflict, most associated with other characters and the most many need time of telling.
Shalimah prepares things for the departure of Enong to Belitung. To see the bag of her daughter, her tears are adorned. The only one she can do its just heartening and thats imposible for her to do if she herself seems to lose with the situation which pinched them. (Hirata, 2011: 31)
The Data above shows that the problems are experienced by Enong with her family, especially her mother. Both figures are facing a problem when it must give up with enong's education stalled to work to support the family. The theme in this study is divided into two: minor theme and major theme. A minor theme in novel Padang Bulan is the persistence of the first character to meet the needs of her life.
Enong becomes the center of talk of the people around her but she never stops or feels affected by all the gossips given to her personally or to her family. She does not care as the most point for her is to help her family survive. (Hirata, 2011: 59)
Based on above it can be seen that Enong gets into trouble as long as she works as a tin miner. In addition to the work that she did not get immediately, she also became the talk of people in her village. These obstacles do not make enong obstinence to give up. Enong persistenly astrieves to meet the needs of her family.
Based on the data obove, it can be seen that Enong will leave for Tanjong Pandan to work. Here is another data explaining Enong's departure to city of Tanjong Pandan. The Psychological Humanistic Personalities found in the first character of the novel entitled Padang Bulan among others are: Psychological needs, Safety needs, The need for love, The need for self-esteem, and The need self-actualization.
Basic of psychological needs are characterized by needs related to physical needs. For example eat, drink, and rest. Here are the data which indicate the basic psychological needs:
“The following days Enong began to limp, but she obstained from begging. She ate by scavenging leftovers food in the market” (Hirata, 2011: 36)
The needs sense of security contained in this novel is the need to protect self from outside attacks.Here's the data that supports it:
“The dogs barking. Enong hunted like a mixer. She run with all her might for fear of being raped and killed. She is not cares about her bare feet bleeding from thorns and staple wood sharp. Unfortunately, she can not run more far away because in front of her cliffs which is steep. Under the river it flows river rafting. Enong turned to the back. The dogs hunter already close. She run to the cliff and without doubt she jumped. Her little body hovered, then booming on the surface of the river. She sinking like a stone, and no longer appearing“ (Hirata, 2011: 72).
Based on the above we can know that Maryamah or Enong sought to save hersef from the threat of those who are hunting her. Enong feels safer when jumping into the river rather than being caught by the hunter.
The needs a sense of love that belongs to maryamah characterized by the love given by her parents. The following data to support it:
The need for love
“Zamzani is very proud of Enong's ambitions. He want enong to get a chance the highest education. Enong's school is number one for him. What kind of work?. He was never late to pick up enong”. (Hirata, 2011: 10)
Based on the above it can be seen that Enong or Maryamah gets the love and attention great from her father. Her father who is only a Tin miner tries to meet the needs of his family to get a high education opportunity.
The needs of Self-esteem found in the first character of the novel is characterized by working as its responsibility.
Maryamah as the eldest child feels having Self-esteem if she is able to meet the needs of her family by working diligently.
The need for self-esteem
“After Morning prayer, she wrapped her veil strongly, strong to packing hoes, and bike, kissing her mother's hand, holding her sibling for a while, then sliding with joy while whistling songs nationality to the banks of the lake.
Sometimes she whistled children's songs in English taught by Miss Nizam to her. She is the first female in the history as a Tin miner who knows English. Her age is not more than 14 years”. (Hirata, 2011: 50)
Based on the above data it can be seen that Maryamah was pleased with her new job as Tin miner. This is due to the work of Tin miner to make money. The money she gets will be used to meet the needs of her family so she feels useful to her family, and gets the attention, and appreciation from family and also from her neighborhood. Feeling useful for others, get the attention, and appreciation are Self-esteem. Working and getting the money makes Maryamah confident and get recognition from others.
Actualization needs are characterized Maryamah's efforts in realizing the ideals of being able to play chess and win the the game.
“Through grand master's guidance Ninochka stronovsky, Maryamah increasingly masters the defense techniques of this castle in the style of grand master Anatoly carpov.
The next year Maryamah collided again againts Matarom in the final. Matarom lost again. Maryamah is the first chess player who managed to become the 3-years champion consecutive. She grabbed the eternal cup and after that never again compete. She famous with called Maryamah”. (Hirata, 2011: 262).
Based on the data above it is known that Maryamah becomes a winner in a chess match against men. Winning a chess match is a considerable achievement for her. It is one form of Self-actualization in Maryamah.
The first character named Maryamah or Enong can be described through the Psychological approach of “Psychology of humanistic Personality” of Abraham Maslow. Maryamah has a number of stages of fulfillment needs ranging from psychological, Sense of security, love having and owned, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Fulfillment psychological needs indicated by eating, drinking, and rest. Fulfillment of the security needs it shows through trying to protect themselves from threats danger. Fulfillment of love has shown through loving friends as a child, and gets the effection from both parents. The need for Self-esteem is demonstrated by working hard with Persistent and diligent ways for a better life, and avenge his ex-husband through a chess match. The need for self-actualization is manifested through achievement in the field of English and becomes a champion in the chess game in her village.