KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 825–833


1. Introduction

The focus of the study is about conflict experienced by the protagonist. The conflicts will be analyzed based on Lewin's theory (1997: 89-90) who says that there are three major types of conflicts. It is found that generally people who often play as a protagonist in a novel is always faced by some conflict to be overcome. The conflicts between them are various. They must take a decision of options of that conflict. From those above explanation, this research focuses on the conflict of the main character in Tahajud Cinta di Kota New York by Arumi E.

Every prose fiction contains a story. It is necessary to comprehend what story means. Kenny (1966: 2) states that: “A story is minimum events that occur in temporal sequence that is one after another. The story of a man's life, for example, will include his birth, his growing up, his marriage, his growing old, his death. Obviously, these events occur over a period of a time”

The analysis in this paper does not focus only on that minimum of events but also on the story that contains conflicts. What is meant by conflict is further explained by Kenny (1966: 19): “The conflicts with which fictions concern itself are of many kinds. A story may deal with a conflict within a single woman, a conflict between man and nature, and so on”. With reference to what Kenny says about the conflict above. It has been found that conflict deals with life situation. It is only situation that offers a conflict. So, the focus of my attention is internal and outer conflicts in a love story novel. Conflict is an important element in the plot structure of a story. We can say that there is no story without conflicts Conflict may occur from various reasons. A woman, for example, prefers choosing his deep love to his rich family. If he chooses his deep love, he will become a poor man. He has to work hard in order to get some money. In this case he has some conflict with his own family and conflict within his own mind. Such conflicts can be found in the love story novel by Arumi E and it makes the novel very interesting. The conflicts in the above Arumi E's novel involve love affair which makes us curious to read and analyze the novel.

Conflict is a necessary element of fictional literature. It is defined as the problem in any piece of literature and is often classified according to the nature of the protagonist and antagonist. Conflict is actual perceived opposition of needs, values, and interests. A conflict can be internal (within oneself) to individuals. Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of social life such as social disagreement, conflicts of interests, and fight between individuals, groups, or organization. It is common that everyone will experience conflict in his life since conflict is a natural part of human life.

Conflict is a disagreement or dispute. And this happens to someone with the opposition from where the source of conflict for the sake of a purpose. Conflict is a situation where oppositely directed, simultaneous forces of about equal strength occur in a person (Lewin, 1948: 97).

Intrapersonal conflict can be regarded as a dispute that occurs when interests, goals or values of different individuals or groups are incompatible with each other. This results into a situation whereby they frustrate each other in an attempt to achieve their objectives. Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of freedom, position, and resources. People who value independence tend to resist the need for interdependence and, to some extent, conformity within a group. People who seek power therefore struggle with others for position or status within the group. Conflict is a part of organizational life and may occur between individuals, between the individual and the group, and between groups.

2. Literature Review

Conflict is a necessary element of fictional literature. It is defined as the problem in any piece of literature and is often classified according to the nature of the protagonist and antagonist. Conflict is actual perceived opposition of needs, values, and interests. A conflict can be internal (within oneself) to individuals. Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of social life such as social disagreement, conflicts of interests, and fight between individuals, groups, or organization. It is common that everyone will experience conflict in his life since conflict is a natural part of human life.

Horton (1982:76-77) explained that conflict is the process where a person or group seeks to gain an advantage by weakening or eliminating competitors rather than by surpassing them fair competition. Conflict is an interaction in which people (individually or in group) feel strange, they feel their aims are not suitable with what they expected and see the other as competitors or threats”. This occurs when a person is not satisfied with himself, he always see the others better than himself. So, he is competing to be the best.

According to Taquiri in Newstorm and Davis (2002), conflict is a legacy of social life that may prevail in a variety of circumstances resulting from the rise of disagreements, controversies and controversy between two or more parties on a continuous basis.

Wellek and Warren (translation by Melani Budianta, 1990: 285) defines conflict, as something 'dramatic', referring to a struggle between two equal forces, implying action and retaliation.

Conflict is also determined as any struggle between any opposing forces. It usually happens with the main character in which he is struggling with any other forces. This conflict, then, becomes the one that runs a story and forms the storyline. It is also to make readers get involved in the story as the reader feel the struggle that is faced by the main character. Without conflict, a story would be meaningless and without purpose. A main character who faced a conflict in a story may find that he would deal within a single man, between man, between man and society, and between man and nature or environment. (Kenney, 1966: 21)

According to Perrine in his book namely Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense; A conflict occurs between a main character and other character and environment, nature, society or destiny and between a character and him or herself which can be in form of physical, mental, emotional, or moral resistance (1998: 42). Conflicts that occur in a person can be caused by a lot of things. A conflict not only happens between one person and another, but also happens between a person and a social environment or even her or himself.

Based on the above description, it can be concluded that the conflict is a dispute, disagreement and conflict that occurs as a result of the rise of disagreement, controversy and conflict between two parties or more parties on a continuous basis.

Value conflicts occur between the groups of people that have different viewpoints that are fundamentally built on their subconscious value and believe systems. Such viewpoints can be related to the standard of rightness, wrongness, goodness, and badness. When one party holds a strong personal believe to their own values and assumptions, it becomes difficult to believe in the value system of another party and each party starts stressing the importance of their own value systems which leads to the conflict. Regardless, the issues related to one's values and beliefs, the conflict becomes more difficult to dispute because it is related to the moral system of each party.

Intrapersonal conflicts is caused within the individual. This conflict arises as a result of two or more motives or goals to be achieved at a time. Hence, these are called goal conflicts. Lewin has described three types of goal conflicts Kurt Lewin (1948), They are Approach-Approach Conflict, Approach-Avoidance Conflict, and Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict.

Approach-approach conflict

This occurs when a person has to choose between two attractive alternatives. It happens when a person has to choose between two desirable outcomes, such as a choice between finishing college and a full-time job offer. This conflict is often the easier to resolve than the two other conflicts, which are avoidance-avoidance conflict and approach-avoidance conflict.

Approach-avoidance conflict

This occurs when a person has to deal with a situation that possesses both positive as well as negative aspects, that is when a person feels similar degrees of attraction and repulsion toward a goal or competing goals. Approach avoidance conflict is one of the three major types of conflict described by psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1948. It is when an individual is indecisive and ambivalent in pursuing a desirable goal that has an undesirable outcome. For instance, a person wants to do something but fears the consequence it entails. This conflict is often the more difficult to resolve. In this kind of conflict, we are faced to a single goal that has positive and negative aspects. Another example, we might really want a new i-phone, but realize it will be too expensive.

Avoidance-avoidance conflict

This occurs when each of the competing alternative possesses negative consequence, that is they are equally repulsive. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is one of the three major types of conflict described by psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1931. The other two are approach-approach conflict and approach-avoidance conflict. This conflict involves choosing between undesirable alternatives or outcomes in which a person tends to avoid. For instance, a person who dislikes his job but fears on quitting and unemployment.

3. Research Method

In this research, the researcher used descriptive qualitative methods. Sugiyono (2017: 14) states that qualitative research is data in the form of words, schemes, and images.

While Sutopo (2002: 35) states that in seeking understanding, qualitative research tends not to cut story pages and other data with number symbols. The researcher attempted to analyze the data with all the wealth of her nuanced character, as close to the original as it was recorded.

Bogdan and Taylor (1975) in Moleong's book (2004: 3) suggest that a qualitative method is a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of words or spoken words of people and behavior that can be observed.

The data of this research are collected from Tahajud Cinta di Kota New York: There are three steps in collecting the data: 1. Reading the novel 2. Finding and selecting the conflicts found in the novel 3. Note taking and classifying.

Data analysis technique used is content analysis. In analyzing the contents of a novel in the form of text, then that must be done in analyzing the content by reading the whole text of the novel in a systematic and complete.

4. Discussion

They assume that conflicts are a result from an opposition process between individual's tendency to approach or avoid certain objects or goals. Therefore, they use Kurt Lewis's concept of approach and avoidance tendencies to classify some types of different conflict:

Approach-approach conflict, an individual faces two goals both have positive values but he must choose one of them. For example, when someone has two interesting job offers and he has to choose any one of them. This conflict is not so harmful, since both of them are positive choices. If he chooses one of them, the other one will not be a negative impact to his life.

Avoidance-avoidance conflict, an individual faces two undesirable goals, both have negative values and he must choose one of them. For example, when someone works at a job that he dislikes and he thinks that he can resign from that job but he knows that he will be unemployed. This kind of conflict makes him choose one of them though he does not want it.

Tahajud Cinta In New York City was written by Arumi E., telling of the story of a Columbia University student named Dara Paramitha. Dara, a beautiful girl who was very stylist likes to come to the night club and dress sexily to find guidance in New York City. In the famous free city she met Aisha Liu, and after that meeting they became close and there was the beginning of Dara beginning to deepen Islam. It was not easy for a virgin to live her life after she transformed her appearance into a hooded girl. While unexpectedly he also met Brad, a boy ban. Until finally she was faced by the choice of having to choose Brad or Rick, a convert, who has a bright future. But unexpectedly she was reunited with Brad on top of the Empire State.

Well, from the brief synopsis we can conclude that the theme in the story is the story of Dara struggling in maintaining confidence. While the characters in this novel are Dara, Brad, Rick, Aisyah, Brian, and Keira. Dara has a firm nature and fixed stance; we can prove this in the excerpt of the novel on page 308 "This is not an old rule, Brad. But that's what my religion demands. And I chose to be obedient to my religious rules. I am obedient because I am convinced of the truth. ". Next Brad's character has an unyielding nature; this can be proven in a novel excerpt on page 143 "... Therefore, I also will not give up pursuing my dreams," Brad replied. Soon there is a character named Rick where he has a mature character, which in the excerpt of this novel is on page 51 "The figure of Richard the god instantly attracted Dara's attention." Then there is a character named Aisha, he has a quiet nature and fixed stance, this can be found in the excerpt of the novel on page 23 "In fact, Ayesha cannot change. He remains quiet and the way he wears the veil remains simple. ". Then Brian, he has a disrespectful nature, where in this novel there is a quote that describes himself as disrespectful on page 4 "... I am a little snappy at Brian to make him aware, do not go around being impolite to others,". And lastly there is a character named Keira, he has an emotional nature, this can be proven in the excerpt of the novel on page 29 "... indeed you cannot, during your stay in New York you become a normal Islamic follower?" still fiery so emotionally see the change Dara which makes enough shock. So we can conclude that the characterizations that exist in every character are clearly visible in the excerpt of this novel.

Next we can find the setting or setting of the place in this first novel in New York. This can be proved in a novel excerpt on page 7 "But in New York, you do have to be understood if you look at it strangely". The second one is in Central Park. This can be proven in the novel excerpt on page 145 "Until then the taxi carrying them had arrived near Centar Park in the north". The third in Manhattan. This can be proved in a novel excerpt on page 15 "The soft summer breeze warms the vast and artistic atmosphere of a garden located in the middle of Manhattan City." The fourth in Jakarta. This can be proven in the novel excerpt on page 21 "Dara who lived in Jakarta never attended any recitation,...". The fifth at Al Hikmah Mosque. This can be proved in the novel excerpt on page 155 "Be the first day of Ramadan fasting, the four of them fasting together in Al Himah Mosque." And the last one in the hospital. This can be proven in a novel excerpt on page 208. "Dara can only escort her to the front door of the operating room, but the assistant lecturer she met outside the operating room said things would be fine."

Next time setting, where time spent in this novel is morning, noon, afternoon, evening and early morning. Here we can prove it directly in the quotation indicating that at that time show the morning is on page 70. "But since he became a Muslimism, he must wake up at four in the morning." While the afternoon can be proven on page 17 "Be this afternoon after Dara's college shopping alone.". And in the afternoon proved on page 151 "Afternoon after college Dara stopped by the supermarket to buy all the needs at dawn tonight". Then at night it was proven on page 152 "Tonight he decided to pray tarawih at home alone". And the last time in the morning is proved on page 23 "It's been a week quietly without Keira's knowledge of his roommate, every two o'clock Dara gets up early.

5. Conclusions

This study classifies the analysis into two parts. First, this study analyzes kinds of intrapersonal conflict which occur in the story. The researcher finds that there are three types of intrapersonal conflicts faced by Kut Lewin. These conflicts are classified based on Lewis's concept of approach and avoidance. The first conflict is approach-approach conflict which has two positive goals. It is obtained when Victor attempts to communicate his discovery of Lewin's book. The first goal is his desire to learn about Lewin's book to fulfill his curiosity. The second goal is following his father's advice to read other better science books. Both of them have positive value since they do not harm Victor's choice.

The second conflict is avoidance-avoidance conflict which has two negative goals. This study finds that Dara has to choose two-man goals when she meets spouse of her life. The first goal is she can accept her mind's offer to create a new custom, while she should alienate herself from her society.

The obstacles came not only from his own party-loving Keira, but also from Brian's broken-hearted colleague and Kathy Van de Kamp who were jealous and then spread slander. Over time, Dara was faced with a choice, receiving the love of Richard Wenner, the architect of a convert with a bright future or receiving the love of Brad Smith, a different style musicalian of faith. Dara was drowned in indecision, Brad wallowed in a dilemma. In the midst of his anxiety, Brad's step stopped in front of a domed building. A glimmer of light slipped into his heart. Not only because of Dara, but more than that.

The third conflict is approach-avoidance conflict which has one goal but it has negative and positive impact. This conflict was faced by Brad when he was traveling thousands of miles away to show his sincerity to Dara, the hooded girl still hesitant to give an answer. From the top of the Empire State Building, Dara looked at the glittering City of New York. The city's night wind was whispering, giving her another chance. But this time, still Brad Smith befriended the answer to her feelings.

References

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http://teguhwirwan.blogdetik.com/2009/07/19/kajian-unsur-psikologi-novel diakses pada 20 Februari 2014 pukul 20.20 WIB.

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Kenney, William. (1966). How to Analyze Fiction. USA: Simon and Schuster.

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Lewin, K. (1948). The special case of Germany. In Lewin, G. W. (Ed.), Resolving Social Conflict. London: Harper & Row

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Perrine, Laurence. (1998). Literature, Structure, Sound, and Sense. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

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ISSN: 2518-668X