KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 798–805


1. Introduction

Sociolinguistics is a study of language from social perspective. Sociolinguistics deals with the existence of social factors that have a role in influencing and determining the various linguistics forms used by the speaker. One of the topics discussed in sosialinguistics is language variety.

Language variety is defined as differences in pronunciation, word choice, and grammar due to the influence of such external factors as geographical areas and social group (Wardhough in Hasyim, 2008: 79). Language variety, based on the user, is divided into standard language, dialect, idiolect, jargon, and vernacular, based on the language use, language variety is sub-classified into style and register.

As one type of language variety, style which refers to the choice of certain linguistic forms that have the same meaning, has an important role in communication. In communication a speaker uses style in order not to bother the situation of speaking and not to offend the hearer. In choosing certain style, the speaker needs to adjust to the situation when the communication happens. On a formal situation, for instance, it is necessary for the speaker to use formal style, while in informal situation, he/ she uses the informal one. A student will use a formal style, when she/ he presents their paper in front of the class, but he/ she will use a different style, i.e. informal style, when she tells her parents about presentation at home.

The use of different language style can also be observed in movie or films. Films are one communication media whose stories frequently reflect social reality and contain criticism. Included within this type of films is Tanah Surga Katanya in, an Indonesian film directed by Brajamusti (2012). The film portrays the effort of the common characters in the film, Salman and his grandfather Pak Hasyim, Ibuk Guru and Pak Dokter always encourage the people to love for Indonesia. Throughout the film, the audience can hear the use of various language styles, such as frozen, formal, and casual styles.

The focus of this analysis is on the utterances of all the characters in the film Tanah Surga Katanya his analysis based on the types of language styles.

2. Literature Review

The relation between language and society

Language is not simply a means of communicating information about a subject, but it is also very important means of establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. Sapir (1965: 78) states that “language is purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions, and desires by means of a system of voluntarily producing symbols”. From the quotation above, it is known that language plays a crucial role and a vital role in human life and also has many advantages of many various aspects human life. In a social reflection like conversation, we indicate a language behavior to show the function of language in establishing social relationships is reflected.

The importance of these relationships has led to the growth of a relatively new sub-discipline within linguistics, sociolinguistics. It is a broad but fair generalization to say that much of linguistics has in the past completely ignored the relationship between language and society-language is very much social phenomenon.

Language style

Language has a potentiality for making communication successful and establishing social togetherness if it is used well. If not, it will be a handicap for successful communication and interaction. It is important to pay attention on certain aspect of language variation of styles of language to achieve successful and fluent communication.

Keraf (1991: 113) says that language style is a way to express the idea with special language showing that writer's soul, spirit and concern. Good language must have three elements, thus are: honesty, respect, good manners, and the last is interest with three levels of formality in language use. They are described as follows:

Frozen style (oratorical style) is defined as the most formal style and elegant variety that reserved for very important or symbolic moments. It is usually used in the situation which is celebrated with respect and legitimate or formal ceremonies.

Joon in his book “Five Clocks” (1967: 153-155) states that an oratorical style is used in public speaking before a large audience; wording is carefully planned in advance, intonation is somewhat exaggerated, and numerous rhetorical devices are appropriate.

Formal style is defined as the style of language used for important or serious situation. At the level, there is no symbolic or lasting value in this situation. It is also used in addressing audience, usually to permit effective interchange between speakers and hearers, though the forms are normally not as polished as those in an oratorical style.

Casual style is also simply defined as a style that is used for the conversation in our relaxed or normal situation appropriate to the conversation with our friends, the background information so freely inserted into the casual conversation.

Positively, casual style is characterized by the use of the first name or even nickname rather than a little name and last name in addressing one another. The pronunciation is rapid and often slurred, besides that the use of slang. This is a prime indication of in-group relationship. It is used only with insiders, and only members of the group assume it to know, for example, to teenagers or to some clique among adolescents.

3. Research Method

In this research, the writer applies two methods of analyzing data, namely identity method and distributional method. Sudaryanto (1993: 13) suggests that identity method is a method of analyzing data where the researcher analyzes the non-linguistics elements. In contrast, distributional method is defined as a method of analyzing data where the researcher analyzes the part or elements of language (Sudaryanto, 1993: 16).

4. Discussion

Martin Joos differentiated five levels of formality in language use. They are described as follows, frozen style, formal style, casual style, consultative style, intimate style. In this research the reseacher interested to discuss about, frozen style, formal style, and casual style.

Frozen style (oratorical style) is defined as the most formal style and elegant variety that reserved for very important or symbolic moments. It is usually used in the situation which is celebrated with respect and legitimate or formal ceremonies.

Formal style is defined as the style of language that be used for important or serious situation. At the level, there is no symbolic or lasting value in this situation. It is also used in addressing audience, usually audiences too large to permit effective interchange between speakers and hearers, though the forms are normally not as polished as those in an oratorical style.

Casual style is also simply defined as a style that is used for the conversation in our relaxed or normal situation that appropriate to the conversation with our friends, the background information so freely inserted into the casual conversation. Caring is the act of being concerned about or interested in another person or situation. It is feeling or acting with compassion, concern, or empathy. Teamwork is working with others to reach a common goal; acting together to achieve a shared vision.

Language style, according to Joos (in Alwasilah, 1993: 45), is classified into types based on the degree of formality, those are, frozen, formal, and casual styles.

Frozen style

Frozen or oratorical style is the most formal style. It is usually used in situation that is very formal and has symbolic value, such as in formal ceremonies and court, constitutions, and states documents. The characteristics of frozen style are the use of maintained and unchanged sentence structures, the use of long and careful sentence constructions, the use of exaggerated intonation, and also almost no responses between the speaker and hearer. For instance:

“Preamble.

We the people of the united states, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for common defense, promote for the general welfare, and secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the united states of America....”

(the U.S. code published by the law revision counsel of the U.S. House of representative, 2004: 1).

Formal style

Formal or deliberative style is defined as the type of language style that is used in situations in which the speakers are very careful about pronunciation, choice of the word, and sentence structure, it is usually used in important or serious situations, such as in scholar and technical reports, classrooms, formal speeches, for examples:

The use of standard word

For example:

  • Pemandangan di desa ini indah sekali

  • Uangnya tidak cukup untuk membeli baju baruInstead of

  • Pemandangan di desa ini indah banget

  • Duitnya nggak cukup buat beli baju baru

Sentences 1 and 3 have the same meaning that is “the scenery in this village is very beautiful”. The difference between these sentences is that sentence 1 uses the standard word “sekali” (formal), while sentence 3 uses non-standard word “banget” (informal). Both “sekali” and “banget” mean “very”.

The meaning of sentences 2 and 4 are the same. The literal meaning is that “her money is not enough to buy a new cloth” (she does not have enough money to buy a new cloth). The difference lies in the fact that sentence 2 uses the standard words “uang” (money) and “tidak” (no or not) and “untuk” “for or to” and the sentence a.4 uses the non-standard words “duit” “money”, “nggak” “no or not', and “buat” `for or to'.

The use of effective sentence structures

  • Buku itu sudah saya baca

  • Persoalan itu sudah kami bicarakan kepada bapak kepala sekolahOr

  • Buku itu saya sudah membacanya

  • Persoalan itu kami sudah membicarakanya dengan bapak kepala sekolah

Sentence 1 and 3 have the same meaning, “I have read the book” however, is an effective sentence, whereas 3 is inefefective one.

Both sentences 2 and 4. mean “we have discussed the problem with headmaster”. The differences between 2 and 4 is that in Indonesia language, the sentence structure 2 is effective, while the sentence structure 4 is ineffective.

Casual style

Casual style is defined as a style used in an informal and a relaxed situation. Casual style is used, for example, between friends and family members. Casual style has four characteristics, namely the use of nickname when addressing one another, the use of rapid and slurred pronunciation, the use of slang, and the use of non-standard forms.

The use of non-affix forms

For example:

  • di mana kamu kerja?

  • Dia pinjam buku bahasa inggrisku kemarin

  • Di mana kamu bekerja?

  • Dia meminjam buku bahasa inggrisku kemarin

Both sentences 1 and 3 mean “where do you work?” In formal form, the word “kerja” (work) should be attached by the prefix “ber-” to become “bekerja” (work). The affixation process is as follows:

Prefix       verb       verb

Ber-       +kerja       bekerja

However, sentence 1 uses non-affixs word form “kerja” (work) which is informal, rather than to use the affix word form “bekerja” (work). Both sentences 2 and 4 have the same meaning. These two sentences mean “he borrowed my English book yesterday” in formal form.

pinjam” (borrow) should be “meminjam” (borrow) as illustrated in the following:

Prefix          verb          verb

meN-       +pinjam       meminjam

However, sentence 2 uses non-affix word form “pinjam” (borrow), which is informal rather than to use the affix verb form “meminjam” (borrow).

5. Conclusion

The characters on the movie are Saman, Pak Hasyim (Saman's grand father), Haris (Saman's father), Salina (Saman's sister), Astuty (teacher), Anwar (docter), Gani (village head), Lijet (Saman's friend). Population includes all of the research objects which are going to be observed (Arikunto, 1982: 90). In this research, the population is all characters' utterances in the movie Tanah Surga Katanya. In determining sample, the writer uses purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is defined as a technique of taking sample based on certain purposes (Arikunto, 1982: 98). The writer takes all utterances which contain language style as the sample. Then, he analyzed them based on the language style from formal to informal.

Practically, it can be beneficial for each individual to live together in the society. Those characters, in fact, can inspire the individual in his or her daily activity that leads him or her to be successful in achieving self-esteem and even self-actualization.

Finally, all types of language style are found in the speeches or words of all characters in the novel and each of the type resembles a certain context.

References

1 

Arikunto, Suharsimi. (1982). Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

2 

Joos, Martin. (1993). The Styles of five o'clock. Massachusetts: Lointhrop Publisher.

3 

Keraf, Gorys. (1991). Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia Untuk Pendidikan Menengah. Jakarta: Gramedia Widia Sarana Indonesia.

4 

Sapir, Edward. (1965). Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. San Diego. New York, London: Harcourt Brace Jovansvic, Publishers..

5 

Sudar, Abu. (2016). Tanah Surga... Katanya. Retrieved on February 12, 2017, from https://letterboxd.com/film/tanah-surga-katanya/

6 

Sudar, Abu. (2016). Tanah Surga... Katanya. Retrieved on February 12, 2017, from https://letterboxd.com/film/tanah-surga-katanya/

7 

Sudaryanto. (1993). Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa.Yogyakarta: Data Wacana University Pres.

8 

Wardhaugh, Ronald. (2006). An Introduction of Socialinguistics. New York: Blackwell Publishing.

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ISSN: 2518-668X