In daily life, verbal language used in interacting with other people is a the most dominant media which role in interaction compared with visual language althouh there are many activities of human being related to verbal and visual language. Using only a verbal language without visual language such as motion, voice, color, and other material objects, usually human's understanding in communicating will be limited. Gombrinch in Fitgerald and Young (2006: 169) state that visual text is as important as verbal text in conveying meaning, and all the schemes are represented in visual forms. Kress and Leeuwen (1996: 122) focussed on the difference of meaning formed by the two text models and also its relation whereas its analysis shows that the tendence of visual text usage is higher than verbal text, especially in science. It can be concluded that there is a strong relation between verbal and visual language in creating meaning of a text. Moreover, Sinar (2012: 31) explains that many work results are prestigious because of the relation among language (text), nonverbal language, and other visual media.
One of texts with meaning complexity is advertisement. It is caused advertisement uses elements of language verbally, non verbally, and visually in conveying a message. Advertisement is a media used in promoting a certain product to convince the attention and interest of consumers to purchase the product. Kasali (1992: 9) states that advertisement is a part of promotion process meanwhile promotion process is part of marketing process. Simply, advertisement, promotion, and marketing play important role in selling industrial product such as goods and services. Moriarty, et.al (2011: 6) says that advertisement is a marketing communication. It means that the goals of advertising the product is to persuade the consumers purchase the product. Advertising must be creative. Advertisers have a lot of media to promote their products. Print media such as magazine, newspaper, tabloid, brosure, etc. and electronic media such as Television, Radio, Website, blogs, etc usually are used to advertise a product, goods or services. Multimodal analysis can be used to get understanding about meaning complexity of advertisement.
Multimodal study is applicable to analyse texts variety such as verbal and visual texts. It is generally caused by the existence of logic relation in visual and also verbal texts that can be described using the analysis. Language interaction includes verbal (oral and written) and visual media. Oral media is represented by sounds and written media represented by characters. Visual media is represented by face, body language, gesture, eye contact, touch, spatial and sound. All interactions combine two media that can made a communication meaning of language those are verbal and visual called multimodal (Sinar, 2012: 131-134)
Multimodal analysis on Systemic Functional Linguistics is based on the concept of metafunctions of language pioneered by Halliday. Krees and Leeuwen (1996) adopt the metafunction to create the metafunctions of visual language. By the metafunctions applied, visual language can be an alternative approach in analyse multimodal texts include advertisement because the analysis can can be applied on the whole text, those are how verbal and visual texts convey the meaning and how the relation between texts in forming and conveying the meaning of a text . Multimodal analysis has been a crusial part in reseach, teaching and also practice academically and for the wider science fields. Techniques, theoretical framework, and methodology has been increased in such multimodal analysis.
It can be concluded that verbal, non verbal, and visual texts at advertisement have meaning complexity which can be analysed with multimodal analysis based on Systemic Functional Linguistics. The meaning complexity is very important and interesting to be analyse, for this case, the analysis will take an electronic media of advertisement of one celular card provider Kartu As Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan. it is aimed to describe the metafunctions analysis of verbal and visual language in the texts of the advertisement. Theoretically, it is beneficial to increase the knowledge especially for the linguistics aspects which is the metafunction theory of multimodal text.
2. Literature Review
Multimodal is a study of semiotics aspects as a study of signs in the society (Saussure, 1969: 16). Chandler (2007: 2) explains that semiotics involves a study not only about signs in daily conversation, but also about everything referring to the others. Moreover, the signs are figure, sound, gesture, and object.
Bateman and Schmidt (2012: 28) use language terms (verbal and written), visual, acoustic, and place as the signs studied in semiotics. The signs is also called as Multimodal. A text said as multimodal text if the text has two or more semotics system. There are five semiotics system: (a) Linguistic, consists of words, generic structure, and verbal and written language grammatical; (b) Visual, consists of color, vector, the angle of moving and unmoving objects; (c) Audio, consists of volume, harmony and music rythm and sound effect; (d) Gesture, consists of move, speed, and the silent in face expression and body language; and (e) Location, consists of the position of the object,, direction, layout, and distance based on layout .
According to O'Halloran and Smith (in Sinar, 2012: 133), multimodal analysis includes the analysis of all communications which have interaction and integration of texts based on two or more semiotics sources or as a communication media to reach the communicative function of the text. Simply, multimodal analysis emphasizes that verbal and non verbal communication media have important role to express meaning. Kress and Leeuwen (in Sinar, 2012: 132) state that reprentative and interactive meanings by image exist in analyse multimodal can be done by three system: (a) information value; (b) salience; and, (c) framing, exist.
This research used Systemic Functional Linguistics theory by Halliday (2004) in analysing the aspects of the metafunctions of language. Halliday (2004: 94) explains that text is limited as functional language unit in social context and not a grammatical univet as clause and sentence; and can not be defined following its wide. Moreover, the combination of multimodal theory by Anstey and Bull (2010) and Kress and Leeuwen (1996) are used in analysing the aspects of visual text. To reveal the meaning in the message of advertisement, the advertisement structure theory by Cheong (in Sinar, 2012: 136-138) is applied. The structure of advertisement consists of verbal, visual and verbal-visual texts. The linguistic features that reveal and tell the meaning essence of advertiment message in the text are announcement, enhancer, call-and-visit information, lead, display, emblem, tag, conversion, setting, additive, demand, social and equality, saliance, and reactor.
3. Research Method
This research uses descriptive qualitative method in analysing and elaborating the data based on Rakhmat (2005) and Mahsun (2007). Rakhmat (2005: 25) says that descriptive aims to collect the actual information in detail. Meanwhile, Mahsun (2007: 257) states that qualitative method focuses on the description, elaboration, and filteration of meaning and also the placement of the data to its context and often explain the data by words than numeric.
Data analysed in this research are the words and sentences converted to written text of Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan advertisement of Telkomsel provider from https://youtu.be/8Qn06hGq7x0 in consideration that the data is interesting and with short duration for an video electronic advertisement. The steps of data collection technique are by downloading the advertisement, reading and listening the text, checking the video verbally and visually, and identifying the data. Verbal texts transcribe to be written text. Descriptive analysis technique is used to obtain the result and the conclusion.
Data analysis and research result
Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan advertisement of Telkomsel provider analyses based on multimodal semiotics system as follow.
Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analysis
The advertisement, Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan starred by a family consists of father, mother, and their two children (brother and young sister), and also vegetables seller, uses verbal and written languages. The use of verbal language is more dominant than written. The verbal text order is begun by vegetable seller followed by mother, young sister, vegetable seller, young sister, young sister, mother, father, brother, and father as follows.
Sayur, Sayur. (Vegetables. Vegetables)
Aduh, punya otak ngak sih. Berisik amat (Oh hell, you are brainless. Too noisy)
Bang, punya otak ngak? (Brother, do you sell Brain?)
Habis neng. (Sold out, Miss)
Habis mak. (Sold out, Mom)
Aduh...(Oh my God)
Ngak masak lagi? Sudah seminggu nih. (do you still not cook? Already a week now)
Gampang, pesen ini aja pak. (It's easy, Delivery order this menu, Dad)
Sudah sembuh giginya? (Do your toothace cure?)
Those language variety is informal used in Jakarta which meant to express the natural use of the language as in the daily life and meant to eliminate the gap among the messages conveyed by consumers and also meant to show the modernity of the advertisement broadcasted.
There are some texts that can not be analysed using SFL for its category, not a clause. The metafunctions analysis based on the original source language obtain that Attributive Proces of Experiential Function is the most dominant, 50%. As attributive process is a process involved the existence of statement. The process shows a quality. It means that the advertisement advertise a product with high quality although the price is cheaf so that easily to be had. The second is Verbal Process, 25%. It can be meant because the product supplied is a product of internet use whereas the use of saying feature will be more often in communication. Meanwhile, Mental Process and Material Process have same frequency, 12,5% for each. The implication of the analysis result is that the advertisement focusses more on to tell the consumer that you will get many benefits if you have the product because the fast internet access with very cheaf cost. The stimulus is more attributive, while the understanding is more verbal.
For Interpersonal function, all clauses use Declarative Mood. The implication is to show all the linguistic features in the advertisement functions to inform specifically about the benefits of Telkomsel products for example, this product Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan. For Textual Function, Unmarked Themes dominated by Nominal Group as Topical Theme are the most dominant in the text, eight times, 80%. The theme is characterised by the initial position of the clause. Meanwhile, Marked Theme is used twice, 25%. The implication of the result is that the messages in the advertisement can be easily understood by the audience through the clauses.
Visually, the advertisement, Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan has duration for 30 seconds. Red light color dominates the background of the advertisement as a protution of the color followed by cream color. Red light color is the primary color of Telkomsel products including Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan.
The video visualises a family at home in the morning and also a seller sell vegetables in front the house. The mother is lying on a long sofa and she gets toothache. The father is reading a newspaper, the brother and young sister are using their cellphone. The young sister is also asking about something funny to the seller that referring what her mother said.
Visually, the advertisement is realised in five visual steps: (a) the visual of famous actresses and actors acted; (b) lead; (c) call and visit information; (d) emblem; and, (e) trademark. The combination of the actors and actresses, trademark, call-and-visit information, and emblem creates an interpersonal meaning between the participant and audience. The interaction of both is realised by eye contact functioning as demand. This situation shows that the participant is describing about the product supplies. The next step is the meaning process on the product which describes about the benefit of the product supplies. The following figure gives description of the visual realisation.
Moreover, the emphasis of meaning in the advertisement espesially on the verbal variety is confirmed and strengthened by the existence of written variety realised in the emblem form through the product emblem and trademark.
The decision on visual elements is by giving information to the audience that the product is accesable and can be owned easily with its benefits promoted because it is cheaf. The promotion is realised and can be found at the Display and Emblem.
The advertisement begins with intrumental music in ritmix genre. It is meant to show or to emphasised that the product can raise the strong and past spirit in activity. The music feels appropriate in the morning day situation which is suitable to the lead, pas dengan kamu (fit with you) and kenyang internetan (fast internet access).
The whole space in the advertisement among the images show the fusion of meaning. Every image has its own meaning and support each others. The portrayal of participants' spirit in activity, product benefit, and easily found and used the product is shown by the space of active participant image and the process of participant portrayal analysed and the portrayal of lead, emblem, trademark and other visual in the last image of the advertisement. The lead functionates in giving deep impression and meaning for the users of the product. The lead is the locus of attention as realised at the figure above.
The gesture of the advertisement can be seen on the move and speed of the body and also the expression of the participants. The gesture is realised by the activities of the participant in facing life with spirit. It is imaged from the actors and actresses as the active and passive participants, whereas, the proses of participant's supply about the direct effect obtained from using the product exists. Active and passive participants shown by the visual kenyang (full) for eat all the foods ordered although she has toothache indicated by the patches on the chicks and the followed by the emblem of the product kenyang internetan! Paket Mingguan mulai Rp. 5000 (unlimited internet access! Weekly Package starts from Rp.5000). the process realises on the figures below.
It is concluded that the goals of the advertisement making, Kartu AS Edisi Paket Mingguan Bikin Kenyang Internetan, are to attract the attention and interest of the audiences to purchase the product as displayed. The advertiser aims to tell the audience that no loss for buying the product because the product has many benefits such as high internet quota and chief price. It is proven by the existence of verbal text of the participants in the form of Attributive Process. This advertisement has many aspects of multimodal can be studied such as linguistic, visual, audio, spatial and also the gesture. Every advertisement can be analised the multimodal aspect but not all aspects exist in every.