The Development of communication and Information technology rapidly in the Globalization era has been changing the world in every aspect of life. Boundaries of space and time among nations as if it is borderless, interaction process and communication among societies become easy, the boundaries of space and time causing various message flowed heavily and struck individual as receiver, even it is positive or negative message. Dynamics of communication and Information nowadays is counted in seconds, various feature and service more indulging consumer to live fast and efficient. As in the case of media has its development from printed media till the entry of online media to Indonesia at around the year 1990.
As with the internet growth, many features are basically made online. Newspaper for example in the current era started publishing their news or article basically online in spite of its velocity. News in which constructed and separated by mass media in Indonesia is been on sale, message in the news is produced by capitalism commodity which is sold for profit by those elite to whom as mass media authority regime. So they are free to determine certain construction reality for their sake.
Merdeka.com is one of the online news site which is a part network site of kapanlagi.com. Merdeka.com is built up by Steve Christian in 2011 with investment by Sugeng Wiyono from Trikomsel. Merdeka.com is one of the news coverage at twenty top site in Alexa.com ranking (www.Wikipedia.com). Every media has its own ideology and rules in covering a news included Merdeka.com. News with same theme could be presented with different style depends on its point of view in which chosen by the media or its media idealism.
Within various news in Merdeka.com, the news issue related with violence to woman is the issue that no longer strange. Woman is a social creature that susceptible with exploitation and violence in lots of reason from whatever media. In Feminism, Media represented lots of issue in related with woman. On many media gender literature, media has become a judge that most accurate in viewing woman sexuality. Media considered themselves right and valid in exploiting woman sexuality for the sake of man-reader satisfaction. Media displayed woman at the subordinate position and in inferior condition compared with man. We can easily find and watch that media consume the opposition word to woman. There are only two attribution attached to woman such as “fine woman” and “unfine woman”.
Based on the background explanation above, the writer tried to found the result of this question research of how Reality Construction of news coverage of women violence in online media Merdeka.com?
2. Literature Review
Critical Discourse Analysis, Discourse analysis is a study about message structure in communication. Exactly, discourse analysis is examining about various language function (pragmatic). Discourse Analysis born from the consciousness that matters in communication not only limited at sentence usage or part of sentence, but also included message structure in more complex and inherent. Discourse analysis can not be separated from the use of rules from other linguistic science such as semantic, syntactic etc. (Sobur, 2006: 48).
According to Astuti (2007: 45), Discourse analysis model of Van Dijk engaged three structures i.e. textual, social cognition and societal (social). Text dimension explored text structure. Van Dijk using linguistic analysis. Social cognition is a dimension to elaborate a certain text produced by individual/group who make text. Societal analysis sees the text conjuctioned further with social structure and knowledge developed in society or discourse.
The Critical Discourse Analysis from Van Dijk is a field that is concerned with studying and analyzing written and spoken texts to reveal the discursive sources of power, dominance, inequality, and bias. It actually focuses on language and the social context. Textual analysis is about the discourse structure, here Van Dijk divided the analysis into three levels i.e. Macrostructure, Superstructure, and Microstructure. Macrostructure level deals with the topic of the text in general (Thematic). Superstructure level, is about the framework or schema of the text (Schematic). Microstructure level concerned with the meaning of the text in which is the smallest part of the text that divided into four groups such as semantic, syntactic, stylistic, and rhetoric .
Social Construction Theory, Berger & Luckman introduced Constructionism and stated that daily life reality has subjective and objective dimension. All human activity is a habit of the subject. Every response is a well-patterned repetition, routinely inside individual knowledge stock, taken for granted and become guidance for next response in the future. Berger & Luckman explained individual exactly can not be able to exist in daily life without continuously make interaction and communicate with others (2012: 33).
Online Media Violence, Purwandari in Luhulima (2007: 19) interposes some forms of woman and children violence in some headline news media such as: (1) Physical violence i.e. swiped, smacked, strangling etc.; (2) Psychological violence i.e. screaming, swearing, threatening, harassing etc.; (3) Sexual violence i.e. touching, kissing, forcing making love etc.; (4) Financial violence i.e. stealing, stopped from giving financial needs etc; (5) Spiritual violence i.e. faith subordinate and force victim to practice certain ritual.
Related Studies, In this study, the writer used a related study entitled “Mass Media Construction about Women (Framing Analysis Study from Jawa Pos on December 2013 - May 2014)” by Romadhani from Communication Studies Brawijaya University (2015).
3. Research Method
Research Approach, In analyzing the data, this study used a qualitative approach. According to Neuman (2001: 108), it's an approach that associated with the form of the text and also used to describe in details. It can know that the data for analysis related to words rather than numbers. The characteristics of the qualitative approach itself was suggested by Dornyei as the interpretative analysis that underlying deeper meaning of the data (Dornyei: U2007). Based on that explanation, this approach is suitable to be applied in this study because it examined about the violence of women in online media that is explained through the description and subjective interpretation. To find the result, the writer needs to describe the discourse structure and then interpret violence of the women in Merdeka.com. So that, the qualitative approach is suitable to answer the research question in this study.
Technique of Data Collection, Data in qualitative research is data in form of words, sentences or narration (Kriyantono, 2006: 37). In this study, the primary data is Merdeka.com with the news entitled “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata”. The data had been taken from www.merdeka.com on December 7, 2017. It's a part of business in online newspaper from Kapanlagi Group. All of analysis is strengthened with interviewing with all components of Merdeka.com including also with journalist, mass media practitioner, and woman activist in relating to secondary data.
Technique of Data Analysis, Qualitative data Analysis is an effort done by working with data, organizing data, choosing it into well-managed units, synthesizing, finding pattern, finding what important and what to be learned and deciding what can be to told to others (Moleong, 2007: 6).
After collecting data, the analysis method used in this research is Van Dijk analisis model in which devided to three points i.e. text, social cognition, and social analysis. But the writer only discusses about text and social analysis as it is more relevant in the research. The writer took some steps to analyze this study based on Van Dijk model of Critical Discourse Analysis. Van Dijk divided text structure overview it into three levels i.e. Macrostructure, Superstructure, and Microstructure (Eriyanto, 2006: 227).
Text Structure Analysis in the news: (1) Macrostructure (Thematic) Theme observed from the news entitled “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” in Merdeka.com is an action extracted by North Bekasi police to the beating incident that caused serious injured and the motive of the actor committed violence toward women at home eventhough it was his own grandmother (paragraph 1). The Merdeka.com journalist develop the incident that made it become a woman violence into a newsworthy with facts and analysis; (2) Superstructure (Schematic) If it is observed schematically, the news “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” has a sequence scheme. The main idea was in its earlier news. The next writing paragraph presented facts that support the idea. It can be viewed from the intro paragraph that contained North Bekasi police investigation effort towards the criminal actor, contents of the news exposed about a seriously-injured victim, and ended with the closing paragraph that indicating news of the motive of the actor committed violence (paragraph 2, 3 and 4); (3) Microstructure: (a) Stylistic, The choising word that represented violence ideology to women was at the third paragraph: “AM kata dia, dipastikan yang menghajar neneknya dengan batu bata sampai korban luka robek di kepala dengan panjang 6cm dan dalam 2cm. Pelaku juga menggasak uang Rp. 3 juta dan perhiasan emas 10 gram.”; (b) Semantic, semantic observation in this news elaborated: background news was in the stressing at North Bekasi police action towards criminal, its news detail covered the Merdeka.com journalist reported violence to women at home and intends to describe the beating incident from a grandson to his grandmother that caused a serious injured and the motive of robbery action; (c) Syntactic, the form of the news sentence is an active sentence of North Bekasi Police in which emphasizing at the second paragraph: “Kami sudah mendatangi tempatnya bekerja di sebuah laundry, tapi tidak ada. Sekarang kami sedang mencarinya di Jakarta. Ada satu tempat yang dicurigai sering disinggahi.” and coherenced with the statement at third paragraph: “AM kata dia, dipastikan yang menghajar neneknya dengan batu bata sampai korban luka robek di kepala dengan panjang 6cm dan dalam 2cm. Pelaku juga menggasak uang Rp. 3 juta dan perhiasan emas 10 gram.”; (d) Rhetoric, the discourse reportage style in the news “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” using punctuation in the sentence styled synonym and connotation in which showing with the word bolded on “Jakarta” and the illustrated persecution picture.
Social Context Analysis: (1) Authority practice, the construction of authority practice to women in the news “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” influenced by the men superior behavior towards women that always subordinate women at home. Women violence discourse is emphasized at third paragraph: “AM kata dia, dipastikan yang menghajar neneknya dengan batu bata sampai korban luka robek di kepala dengan panjang 6cm dan dalam 2cm. Pelaku juga menggasak uang Rp. 3 juta dan perhiasan emas 10 gram.” From this paragraph, it is totally demonstrated how violence practice to women at home still vulnerable and prone to happen in Indonesia; (2) Access Affect Discourse, Online Media such as Merdeka.com used as a discourse production tool that can be effectively divergence. The beating incident that caused serious injured and the motive of the actor doing violence can be accepted its information by public society and mass media has the role of disseminating it.
Feminism Analysis, Construction of the news “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” on website page Merdeka.com negationalising still civilized the violence culture to woman around us even involved relatives. Patriarchy enculturing in Indonesia become a factor that cause many discrimination, exploitation, violence, inequality in which the feminism assumed as an oppression happened to woman. Merdeka.com as a mass media pillar in democracy has responsibility to report those imbalance things against human rights especially in breaking down many woman exploitation including fight for the woman humanity so they can be equal with men and lastly free from pancultural generality.
According to Merdeka.com, if the violence actor did not reported - it can make more toxic masculinity predators free to activate and to commit violence. By presenting the news event, it can be a trigger for the security steps to aware and make more action to combat to those woman violence actor.
Besides, there are many factors that begun from patriarchy system that longlasting in considering woman as a second humankind caused the priority to man is given more dignitary in resulting woman always treated as an object rather than subject. The condition of this constructed patriarchy society in which encourage woman vulnerable in violence. The gender belief system also has a heavy influence in the news of woman violence at home. Belief and the idea about man superiority to woman still condensed in the culture of Indonesia society that stimulate many oppression to woman and in any case happen certain ups and downs at home, it is always woman whom first subordinated. The gender belief system included those stereotype to woman and many gender inequalities attitude on woman role and their behavior.
It is very important for the Indonesia society given equality gender education since the early age so they can more respective to woman and permitting woman to enhance their rights and potential to be equal with men in reducing woman violence.
After analyzing the data using Critical Discourse Analysis by Van Dijk, the result of this research showed that Discourse text in the news “Butuh modal nikah, Cucu rampok & pukul kepala nenek pakai batu bata” in Merdeka.com explained terms semantic or meaningness that stressed well such as background deskription and detail in overall text. In lexicon pattern, journalist using the word that contain conjunction confirmation at the women violence incidence at home. The Text applied four elements of Critical Discourse model by Van Dijk in which helping text discourse construction.
The Social context dimension in the text represented men superior behavior towards women that always subordinate women at home. Merdeka.com in its daily news should be more woman-empowering and anti woman-silence in order to maintain as a media of harmony and sustainability in this digital era.