KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 435–451

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1. Introduction

In Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), language is viewed as a resource for making meaning and so it describes language in its actual use in terms of texts and their contexts. This theory attempts to describe how the structures of a text construct meanings and how the meanings of a text can be realized. Halliday (2014) explains that a language consists of a set of systems and the speaker or the writer may choose the ways of expressing meanings. When people use a language to express meanings, they do so in specific situations, and the form of the language that they use is influenced by the complex elements of those situations. He claims that all adult language is organized around a small number of functional components which correspond to the meta-functions of language which underlie all language uses and these meta-functions have a systemic relationship with the lexico-grammar of the language.

Language is used in three different functions known as the three meta-functions of language. These meta-functions are the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual. The ideational functional means that language is used to organize, understand and express the speaker's perceptions of the world and of his consciousness, and this function divides into two: the experiential function and the logical function. The experiential function is largely concerned with contents or ideas which regard clauses as the representation of experience in terms of transitivity structures, which are represented with processes and associated with participants and circumstances. The logical function is concerned with the relationship between ideas in clause complex. it defines the logico-semantic relation between one clause and another which covers expansion and projection and it also defines clause complexes from the interdependency relation whether they are paratactic or hypotactic [7].

Thus, the present study is concerned with the application of Halliday's theory of Logical Function to analyze clause complexes in Chinua Achebe's novel Thing Fall Apart. This topic is chosen because of some reasons. First, the novel is very interesting and contains clauses which are relevant to be analysed by applying Halliday's theory of Logical Function. The analysis is believed to be of some advantages for the readers to grasp ideas revealed in the clauses. Consequently, the readers will get the meaning once they read the novel.

Based on the background presented above, the research problems which are identified are of two points: 1). What types of clause complexes are used in the novel Things Fall Apart written by Chinua Achebe? 2). How is the theory of Logical Function proposed by Halliday (1994, 2014) adequate to analyze clause complexes found in the novel? With this problem identification, it is expected that this research can help the readers understand how the theory is adequate to uncover ideas in the clauses. Based on the problem identification the objectives of this research are 1). to identify the types of clause complexes used in the novel and 2). to examine how the theory of logical function is adequate to be applied to analyze clause complexes found in the novel. With these objectives, it is predicted that the findings of this research will be useful to help the readers understand the theory and guide other researchers to apply it in other related projects.

The scope of this research will focus on applying the theory of logical function to analyze some clause complexes used in the novel. The analysis will cover the application of the theory to analyze how interdependency relation and logico-semantic relation are used in clause complexes in the novel.

2. Literature Review

The theory adopted in this study is Halliday's (1994, 2014) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFG). It is a model of grammar which constitutes part of a broad social semiotic approach to language called systemic linguistics. The term systemic refers to the view of language as a network of systems for making meaning; the term functional indicates that the approach focuses on three meta-functions of language. This theory is popular after the publication of a more comprehensive monograph entitled An Introduction to Functional Grammar in 1994 which was revised by his colleague Matthiessen in 2014 and it becomes the main reference of the theory of SFG by most Functional Grammarians across the globe.

Logical function

Halliday describes the logical function as those systems which set up logical-semantic relationships between one clausal unit and another. The system which comes under the logical function refers to interdependency relation and Logico-semantic Relation of clause complexes. When two clauses are combined, a speaker chooses whether to give both clauses equal status, or to make one dependent on the other. In addition, a speaker chooses some meaning relations in the process of joining or binding clauses together. Halliday argues that the meanings in such processes are most closely related to the experiential function. For this reason, he puts the experiential and logical functions together into the ideational function. A sentence can be interpreted as a clause complex: a head clause together with other clauses that modify it. There is the same kind of relationship between sentence and clause as there is between group and word; the sentence has evolved by expansion outwards from the clause. The notion of clause complex enables us to account in full for the functional organization of sentence. A sentence will be defined, in fact, as a clause complex. Thus, it is a certainty that a sentence is a constituent of writing, while a clause complex is a constituent of grammar [2,3].

Interdependency relation

The relationships of two clauses in a clause complex are categorized into Parataxis and Hypotaxis. Parataxis relationship is a clause complex in which each of the clauses can stand alone. Paratactic clause is generally connected with a coordinate conjunction, a conjunctive adjunct, with a semicolon, or with a dash. Paratactic clauses are analyzed by using numbers; 1,2,3, etc. as: (1) This earth is round, (=2) we cannot see the edge. Hypotaxis is a clause complex in which one of the clauses is independent and can stand by itself whereas the other is dependent on it. Hypotactic clauses are analyzed by using Greek letters: α, β, γ etc. as: (α) John got the first division, (=β) which made everybody surprised.

Logico-semantic relation

Logico-semantic relation is concerned with meaning relationships between or among clauses in a clause complex. The logico-semantic relation consists of expansion and projection. Expansion divides into three types: elaboration marked by (=) in the analysis, extension marked by (+), and enhancement marked by (x). Projection divides into two kinds: locution marked by (“) and idea marked by ('). The analysis of a clause complex will involve both the interdependency relation (Taxis) and the logico-semantic relation.

Expansion

Expansion refers to the relationships between two clauses in a clause complex in which the secondary clause expands the primary one. Expansion involves three types of relationship: elaboration, extension and enhancement.

Elaboration

In elaboration, one clause elaborates on the meaning of another by further specifying or describing it in which the second clause elaborates the meaning of the first clause. Elaboration divides into paratactic elaboration and hypotactic elaboration. The analysis of Paratactic Elaboration clause uses the notation (1=2) and is categorized into three types: exposition, exemplification and clarification depending on the conjunction or conjunctive adjunct used. The analysis of hypotactic elaboration clause uses the notation (α=β). The correlation between the independent and dependent clause in the clause complex is that the dependent clause elaborates the meaning of the former by the structural property known as non-restricted relative clause. The dependent clause can be a finite clause or a non-finite clause.

Extension

Extension is one of the subtypes of expansion which is concerned with the relationships of two clauses in a clause complex in which the second clause extends the meaning of the first. Extension clause divides into Paratactic Extension and Hypotactic Extension. Paratactic extension refers to the relationship between two independent clauses in a clause complex in which the secondary clause extends the meaning of the primary clause by addition, variation or alternation. The combination of two independent clauses by way of extension will result in coordination and therefore it generally makes use of coordinating conjunctions. The notation used in the analysis of Paratactic Extension is (1+2). Hypotactic extension marked by the notation (α+β) refers to the relationship between the independent clause and the dependent clause in a clause complex in which the secondary clause extends the meaning of the first by contrastive dependency in terms of addition, variation and alternation. The dependent clause in the extension may be in the form of a finite clause or a non-finite clause.

Enhancement

Enhancement is one of the subtypes of expansion which is concerned with the relationships of two clauses in a clause complex in which the secondary clause enhances the meaning of the first clause. The enhancement can be paratactic or hypotactic. Paratactic enhancement marked by (1x2) refers to the relationship between two independent clauses in a clause complex in which the secondary clause enhances the meaning of the primary clause by reference of some circumstantial features: time, place, manner, condition, purpose, cause, concession, etc. The combination of two independent clauses by way of enhancement will result in coordination. Paratactic enhancement generally uses coordinate conjunction or conjunctive combinations. Hypotactic enhancement marked by (αxβ) refers to the relationship between the independent clause and the dependent clause in a clause complex in which the dependent clause enhances the meaning of the dominant clause by reference of circumstantial features. Hypotactic enhancement constitutes clausal adjunct when finite and phrasal adjunct when non-finite.

Projection

Projection refers to the logico-semantic relation between two clauses in a clause complex in which the primary clause projects the secondary clause with either a verbal process known as Locution or a mental process known as Idea.

Locution

Locution is one of the subtypes of projection which is concerned with the relation of two clauses in a clause complex in which the primary clause projects the meaning of the secondary clause with a verbal process. Locution is analyzed by using double quotation marks (“) and differentiated into paratactic and hypotactic. Paratactic locution marked by (1”2) refers to the relation between two independent clauses in a clause complex in which one clause projects the other with a verbal process. As the two clauses in paratactic locution are of equal status and the position is reversible. Hypotactic locution with the notation (α”β) refers to the relation between the independent clause and the dependent clause in a clause complex in which the primary clause projects the secondary clause with a verbal process. Hypotactic locution can be differentiated into finite and non-finite.

Idea

Idea is one of the subtypes of projection which is concerned with the relation of two clauses in a clause complex in which the primary clause projects the meaning of the secondary clause with a mental process. Projection idea can be differentiated into paratactic and hypotactic. Paratactic idea marked by (1'2) refers to the relation between two independent clauses in a clause complex in which one clause projects the other with a mental process and this is also traditionally known as direct speech. Paratactic idea is also reversible as in: She thought, “I will commit suicide.” Hypotactic idea marked by (α'β) refers to the relation between the independent clause and the dependent clause in a clause complex in which the primary clause projects the secondary clause with a mental process which can be either finite and non-finite.

3. Research Method

This study is a descriptive research which describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It addresses the `what' question and what are the characteristics used to describe the situation or population. They are usually some kinds of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories, [8]. This study also used qualitative descriptive method whose objective is to describe, summarize various conditions and phenomena of social reality that exist in the society that becomes the object of research and this study is an attempt to draw the reality to the surface as a characteristic, character, nature, or model ofcertain situations or phenomena [4]. The population of this study was derived from clause complexes in the novel Things Fall Apart which are related to the subject matter. The samples were selected randomly as a subset of individuals to represent an entire group as a whole. Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart used as the main source of data. Other references related to the theory are adopted from books and websites. The steps of this study were conducted by administering, verifying, and classifying the data and by identifying the types of clause complexes based on Halliday's theory of logical function, classifying the clause complexes according to inter-dependency relation and logico-semantic relation, and deducing a finding that the application of the theory of logical function to analyze clause complexes in the novel is supposedly adequate.

4. Discussion

Some clause complexes are selected from the novel to be analysed by applying Halliday's theory of logical function covering all types of interdependency relation and logico-semantic relation which divides into expansion and projection. Expansion consists of elaboration, extension, and enhancement and projection consists of locution and idea.

Paratactic elaboration

Quote 1 (Chapter 1, Par. 1): (1) Okonkwo was well known throughout the nine villages (=2) and even beyond. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

According to the tactic system, this clause complex belongs to paratactic elaboration because both the independent clauses are conjoined with the conjunction and and they are equal in status. The primary is the initiating clause, “Okonkwo was well known throughout the nine villages” and the secondary is the continuing clause and even beyond which has undergone elision from the complete form Okonkwo was well-known throughout the nine villages and Okonkwo was well known even beyond the nine villages. The second clause elaborates the first so that it is called paratactic elaboration.

Finite hypotactic elaboration

Quote 2 (Chapter 1, Par. 1): (α) Amalinze was the great wrestler (=β) who for seven years was unbeaten, from Umuofia to Mbaino. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

The clause complex quoted above belongs to hypotactic elaboration as there is a relative clause beginning with the relative pronoun who which qualifies the preceding noun wrestler. The independent clause is Amalinza was the great wrestler, and the dependent clause is who for seven years was unbeaten, from Umuofia to Mbaino. Thus, the clause complex above is called hypotactic elaboration.

Non-finite hypotactic elaboration

Quote 3 (Chapter 2, Par. 17): (α) All he knew was that a few men had arrived at their house, (=β) conversing with his father in low tones. (Achebe, 1959: 4).

The clause complex quoted above belongs to non-finite hypotactic elaboration which refers to the relationship between the independent clause “All he knew was that a few men had arrived at their house, with notation (α) as the dominant clause meanwhile the dependent clause conversing with his father in low tones, cannot stand alone. It has undergone the elision of its own complete form. In such cases, there may be an explicit Subject in the dependent clause, as in a few man had been conversing with his father in low tones. The dependent clause is formed by a non-finite clause, which elaborates the meaning of the dominant clause.

Extension

Paratactic extension

Quote 4 (Chapter 1, Par. 2): (1) Amalinza was a wily craftsman (+2) but Okonkwo was as slippery as a fish in water. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

The clause complex quoted above consists of two independent clauses. The first clause, Amalinza was a wily craftsman, with notation (1) is called the initiating clause and the second but Okonkwo was as slippery as a fish in water with notation (=2) is called the continuing clause. Both clauses are conjoined with the structural but that becomes the coordinator between the first clause and the second clause. Thus, both clauses are of equal rank and the second clause simply adds more information to the first and therefore it belongs to paratactic extension of addition.

Paratactic extension of alternation

Quote6 (Chapter 8, Par. 39): (1) It had to be done slowly and carefully, taking each string separately, (+2) else it would break. (Achebe, 1959: 23).

The clause complex quoted above belongs to paratactic extension of alternation which consists of two independent clauses in which the second clause else it would break, with the notation (+2) presents an alternative to the first clause It had to be done slowly and carefully, taking each string separately with notation (1). The structural else is used to introduce an alternative to show the result if something does not happen. Thus, the clause complex above is called paratactic extension of alternation.

Finite hypotactic extension of alternation

Quote 8 (Chapter 14, Par. 22): (α) I have none now (+β) except that young girl who knows not her right from her left. (Achebe, 1959: 44)

The clause complex quoted above conveys the sense of extension. The independent clause I have none now with notation (α) is conjoined with the independent clause except that young girl who knows not her right from her left with notation (+β). The subordinate structural except carries the sense of alternation and therefore the clause belongs to finite hypotactic elaboration of alternation.

Enhancement

Paratactic enhancement

Quote 9 (Chapter 2, Par. 1): (α) Okonkwo wondered what was amiss, (xβ) for he knew certainly that something was amiss. (Achebe, 1959: 3)

Observe that the clause complex quoted above consists of four clauses. The first clause Okonkwo wondered has a projected idea clause what was amiss, as the second clause. The third clause is for he knew certainly which is also followed by a projection of idea that something was amiss as the forth clause. The point of analysis here is on the relationship between the first clause and the third in which the third clause begins with the coordinate structural for which carries the sense of circumstantial feature in terms of reason; and so, such a case assigns paratactic enhancement of cause.

Non-finite hypotactic enhancement

Quote 10 (Chapter 1, Par. 1): (xβ) As a young man of eighteen (α) he had brought honour to his village by throwing Amalinze the Cat. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

The clause complex above consists of the independent clause he had brought honour to his village by throwing Amalinza the Cat, in the second position and the independent clause as a young man of eighteen, in the first position which begins with the subordinate structural as which carries the meaning of temporal so that the complete clause is when he was a young man of eighteen. Thus, such a clause is classified as a non-finite hypotactic enhancement clause of temporal.

Finite hypotactic enhancement

Quote 11 (Chapter1, Par. 1): (α) It was this man that Okonkwo threw in a fight which the old men agreed was one of the fiercest (xβ) since the founder of their town engaged a spirit of the wild for seven days and seven nights. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

The main attention in this analysis is on the fact that there is a dependent clause since the founder of their town engaged a spirit of the wild for seven days and seven nights (xβ) which begins with a structural indicating temporal and with a finite process, Thus, such a clause complex belongs to hypotactic enhancement.

Hypotactic enhancement of cause

Quote 12 (Chapter 2, Par. 1): (α) And even now he could still hear it (xβ) as it grew dimmer and dimmer in the distance. (Achebe, 1959: 3)

The clause complex quoted above consists of one independent clause and even now he could still hear it (α) and one dependent clause as it grew dimmer and dimmer in the distance (Xβ) The second clause is finite as seen from the process grew, and it is initiated by the structural as which carries the sense of temporal; and therefore such a clause complex belongs to finite hypotactic enhancement of temporal.

Hypotactic enhancement of cause reason

Quote 13 (Chapter 2, Par. 2): (α) A snake was never called by its name at night (xβ) because it would hear. (Achebe, 1959: 3)

The quoted clause complex above begins with the primary clause A snake was never called by its name at night (α) and followed by the secondary clause because it would hear (xβ), which enhances the primary clause, which begins with the structural because indicating cause reason and the finite would; therefore, such a clause complex belongs to finite hypotactic enhancement of cause reason.

Hypotactic enhancement of temporal

Quote 14 (Chapter 3, Par. 20): (α) I have heart that many years ago, (xβ) when his father had not been dead very long. (Achebe, 1959: 6)

The above clause complex consists of one independent clause I have heart that many years ago (α) and followed by two parallel dependent clauses when his father had not been dead very long, (xβ) and he had gone to consult the Oracle (xβ). As the first parallel clause begins with the structural when, which enhances the dependent clause; and this clause complex is called hypotactic enhancement of temporal.

Hypotactic enhancement of condition

Quote 15 (Chapter 2, Par. 9): (α) And in fairness to Umofia it should be recorded that it never went to war (xβ) unless its case was clear and just and was accepted as such by its Oracle. (Achebe, 1959: 3)

From the above clause complex consists of four finite clauses. The primary clause And in fairness to Umofia it should be recorded (α)and it is followed by the second clause that it never went to war (=β) which elaborates the pronoun it in the primary clause. The third clause Unless its case was clear and just and was accepted as such by its Oracle (xβ) which consists of two parallel clauses with finite was, enhances the primary clause. The enhancement is identified from the structural unless which indicates condition. Thus, such a clause comlex is called finite hypotactic elaboration of contingency of condition.

Hypotactic enhancement of concession

Quote16 (Chapter 3, Par. 8): (xβ) But in spite of this advantages, (α) he had begun even in his father's lifetime to lay the foundations of a prosperous future. (Achebe, 1959: 5)

The quoted clause complex above consists of the dependent clause But in spite of this advantages (xβ) as the secondary clause without finite and the primary clause He had begun even in his father's lifetime to lay the foundations of a prosperous future (α). The conjunctive But in spite of indicates concession, which is followed by the noun this advantages. Thus, this clause belongs to non-finite hypotactic elaboration of contingency of concession.

Hypotactic enhancement of spatial

Quote 17 (Chapter 3, Par. 11): (xβ) After kola nut had been eaten, (α) Okonkwo brought his palm-wine from the corner of the hut. (Achebe, 1959: 3)

The quoted clause complex above consists of four clauses. The first clause After kola nut had been eaten (xβ) enhances the second but primary clause Okonkwo brought his palm-wine from the corner of the hut (α) and the third clause is parallel to the forth clause where it had been placed and stood it in the centre of the group (xβ) which also enhances the second clause. Thus, in the first place this clause complex belongs to finite hypotactic enhancement of temporal as identified from the structural after in the first clause and in the second place it belongs to finite hypotactic enhancement of spatial as identified from the structural where. Thus, the clause complex is classified into hypotactic enhancement of spatial.

Hypotactic enhancement of manner comparison

Quote 18 (Chapter 3, Par. 28): (α) It seems (xβ) as if the world had gone mad. (Achebe, 1959: 7)

The above quoted clause complex consists of two clauses. The primary clause It seems (α) is enhanced by the finite dependent clause as if the word had gone mad (xβ). The subordinating conjunction as if here is used to indicate manner of comparison. Therefore, this clause complex is classified as finite hypotactic enhancement of manner comparison.

Hypotactic enhancement of cause of purpose

Quote 19 (Chapter 10, Par. 1): (α) Most communal ceremonies took place at that time of the day, (xβ) o that even when it was said that ceremony would begin “after the midday meal”. (Achebe, 1959: 29)

The clause complex quoted above begins with the primary clause Most communal ceremonies took place at that time of the day (α) which is enhanced by the finite secondary clause So that even when it was said that ceremony would begin “after the midday meal” (β). The structural so that followed by a clause states purpose or intent. Therefore, this clause complex belongs to finite hypotactic enhancement of cause of purpose.

Hypotactic enhancement of purpose

Quote 20 (Chapter 2, Par. 12): (α) It was the fear of himself, (xβ) lest he should be found to resemble his father. (Achebe, 1959: 4)

The above clause complex also belongs to hypotactic enhancement of cause of purpose as the primary clause It was the fear of himself (α) is enhanced by the secondary finite clause Lest he should be found to resemble his father (xβ).” in which the structural lest indicates the sense of cause of purpose. Thus, such a clause complex is called finite hypotactic enhancement of cause of purpose.

Non-finite hypotactic enhancement

Quote 21 (Chapter 17, Par. 21): (xβ) To abandon the gods of one's father and go about with a lot of effeminate, (α) men lucking like old hens was the very depth of abomination. (Achebe, 1959: 50)

The above clause complex consists of two clauses. The dependent clause To abandon the gods of one's father and go about with a lot of effeminate (xβ) which is non-finite in the form of infinitive to abandon, initiates and enhances the primary clause Men lucking like old hens was the very depth of abomination (α). Thus, such a clause complex belongs to non-finite hypotactic enhancement with infinitive.

Non-finite hypotactic enhancement

Quote 22 (Chapter 17, Par. 9): (xβ) After passing and re-passing by the church, (α) Nwoye returned home. (Achebe, 1959: 49)

The clause complex quoted above also consists of two clauses. The primary clause Nwoye returned home (α) occurs after the secondary clause after passing and re-passing by the church (xβ) which functions to enhance the primary one. The secondary clause begins with the preposition after and followed by the gerund passing and re-passing by the church. Thus, such a clause complex is classified as non-finite hypotactic enhancement with a preposition.

Locution

Paratactic locution

Quote 23 (Chapter 1, Par. 13): (“2) “Look at that wall,” (1) he said, pointing at the wall of his hut. (Achebe, 1959: 2)

The clause complex in the quotation above begins with a projected clause “Look at that wall,” (“β) with double quotation marks, which projects the primary clause he said, pointing at the wall of his hut (α). The main process used in the primary clause is a verbal process said; and therefore, it is called Paratactic locution.

Finite hypotactic locution

Quote 24 (Chapter 1, Par. 3): (α) He breathed heavily, and it was said (“β) that, when he slept, his wives and children in their houses could hear him breathe. (Achebe, 1959: 1)

This clause complex consists of four clauses. The first clause he breathed heavily (1) is the initiating clause which is coordinated with the second clause and it was said that (+2) but this second clause is also as a primary clause which is independent (α) and projects the third clause when he slept (“β) as the complement of the verbal process said in the second clause. At the same time the third clause is parallel to the forth clause as the projection of the same process in the second clause. Thus, such clause complex is a paratactic extension but the point in this discussion is on the fact that it is also finite hypotactic locution.

Non-finite hypotactic locution

Quote 25 (Chapter 7, Par. 15): (α) He refused to join in the meal, and asked Okonkwo (“β) to have a word with him outside. (Achebe, 1959: 18)

The quoted clause complex above consists of three clauses. The primary clause He refused to join in the meal, (1) is extended with the secondary clause and asked Okonkwo, (+2). The third clause to have a word with him outside (“β) is the projection of the finite verbal process asked in the secondary clause. Therefore, such a clause complex is paratactic extension but the point of discussion here is that it is also non-finite hypotactic locution.

Idea

Paratactic idea

Quote 26 (Chapter 1, Par. 9): (`β) “No, it is for you,” (α) I think. (Achebe, 1959: 2)

This clause complex begins with the projected clause “No, it is for you,” (`β) as the complement of the mental process think in the primary clause I think (α). Thus, such a clause belongs to paratactic idea.

Non-finite hypotactic idea

Quote 27 (Chapter 8, Par. 12): (α) I want you (`β) to be there. (Achebe, 1959: 21)

The quoted clause complex above begins with the dependent clause I want you (α) and followed by the secondary clause to be there. (`β), as the complement of the mental process want in the primary clause, which is in the infinitive form, and therefore, such a clause complex belongs to non-finite hypotactic locution.

5. Finding

The application of Halliday's theory of logical function to analyze clause complexes randomly selected from Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart constitutes convincing evidence that the theory is adequate to be applied to analyze clauses of any natural languages. Paratactic relationship involves a paratactic nexus. The primary and the secondary clauses are analyzed by employing numerical notation 1 2 3 etc. Parataxis covers paratactic elaboration (1=2), paratactic extension (1+2), paratactic enhancement (1x2), paratactic locution (1“2), and paratactic idea (1'2). Hypotactic relationship involves a dependency relation labelled in accordance with their hierarchical dependency. Greek alphabetic symbols α,β,γ are conventionally employed to expound descending dependency and it is possible to place the position of the secondary clause prior to the primary clause. The clause in the theory includes those non-finite clauses such as infinitive, gerund, present participle, past participle and also reduced or contracted clauses.

6. Conclusion

An attempt to examine whether the theory of logical function postulated by Halliday (1994) is adequate to be applied to analyze clause complexes in the novel Things Fall Apart written by Chinua Achebe has been conducted. The analysis focuses on the description of clause complexes used in the novel from both interdependency relation and logico-semantic relation. Based on the finding, it is concluded that the theory of logical function has proved adequate to be applied to analyze clause complexes in the novel under research. The evidence is based on the fact that all types of clause complexes as postulated in the theory of logical function are found in the novel, as the sample of natural language. The types of clause complexes used in the novel cover paratactic elaboration (1=2), hypotactic elaboration (α=β), paratactic extension (1+2), hypotactic extension (α+β), paratactic enhancement (1x2), hypotactic enhancement (αxβ), paratactic locution (1”2), hypotactic locution (α”β), paratactic idea (1`2), and hypotactic idea (α'β).

References

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Achebe, Chinua, (1958). Things Fall Apart. Nigeria: William Heinemann Ltd.

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Halliday, M.A.K. (2014). Halliday's Introduction to Functional Grammar. Revised by Christian M.I.M. Matthiessen. Fourth Edition. London and New York: Routledge.

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Suhadi, Jumino. (2015): “Interpersonal Metaphor of Mood Applied to Some Verses of the Holy al-Quran” in Miqot Vol. XXXIX No. 2. Medan: UINSU Medan.

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Suhadi, Jumino. (2016). Course in English Functional Grammar. Medan: LPPM-UISU Press.

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