KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 372–382


1. Introduction

The latest curriculum of Senior high school concerns to the students' understanding about text-based approach. The students should master some types of text well. When they are in the Junior High School they must master five types of text, such as narrative, recount, descriptive, procedure and report. Then in the senior high school the understanding of types of text is continued by adding more types of text, they are explanation, discussion, exposition, news item and review. Types of text or genre have become an obligatory for students to master them. Most students find many difficulties in mastering them. They cannot differentiate types of text. The teacher tries to find a solution for this problem by having classroom action research for them.

As a matter of fact, writing is the most difficult skill to be mastered by the students. That is why the writer needs more concerned to this. As a matter of fact, skill. He needs to fulfill students' knowledge in writing. The objectives of this research are to find particular things, places and persons of Descriptive text in Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels as role model in improving students' writing ability. To describe particular things, places and persons of Descriptive text in Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels as role model implemented in improving students' writing ability. The scope of the study in this research is the implementation of Genre-Based Approach especially descriptive texts through Sidney Sheldon's novel “Rage of Angels” as role model to student's ability in writing. The Descriptive texts of this research are the types of the text that find in the novel, especially related to things, places and persons. This text is very useful for students. It is caused that they are still learnt in the university later. The significances of this research are to improve students' ability in understanding genre to develop students' skill in writing. To make the learning process is more interesting by using novel.

2. Literature Review

Role Models define as individuals who influence role aspirants' achievements, motivation and goals by acting as behavioral models, representations of the possible, and inspirations (Morgenroth, 2015: 4). Hornby (1976: 503). Here, the study concerns one of the literary works that is novel. Genre refers to more specific classes of texts, such as newspaper reports or recipes (Lin, Benedict, 2006: 71). While, according to Black, Elizabeth (2006: 71) Genre is comparable to schema: it draws on our previous knowledge, experience and offers a framework for interpretation. Next, Genre defines as including all purposeful of language. Genre based approach is an approach that focuses on the relationship between context and language. Derewianka (2003: 134). Genre-Based Approach is a theory of language and methodology for analyzing facts and their content of use. It seeks to develop communication competence by mastering different types of texts. This approach aims to help students understand the lexical and grammatical features of different rhetoric contexts being aware of communicative purpose in social interaction.

3. Genre-based Approach Theory

Derewianka (2003:146) stated that the practical implementation sequence of teaching materials based on Genre based approach theory is to develop an understanding of the field. Familiarization with the genre, developing control over the genre, independent construction, extending and critiquing, and Creative exploitation of the genre, have its function or social purpose, generic structure and language features. Some of the genre that learn in Senior high school are: Descriptive text, recount text, narrative text, report text, procedure text, hortatory exposition text, analytical exposition text, Anecdote text, News item text, explanation text and review text. The Descriptive text has become the scope for this research, so it will be discussed further. Descriptive text is used to describe a particular thing or object, place or person. Example: My Bike. Generic structure: Identification: is a statement or a short paragraph that identifies the object that is going to be described. It is usually interesting and able to provoke the readers to be eager to read the text. Description may consist of one or several paragraphs. This part is used to give sufficient description about the object as mentioned in the identification part. The description of the object can be done according to different angels, such as size, length, strength, color, height, condition of the location, weather, qualities, shape, etc. Language Features: Use certain nouns, such as teacher, house, my cat, bridge, etc. Use simple present tense. Use detailed noun phrases to give information about a subject, such as: It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, the deaf person, etc. Various adjectives which are describing, numbering, classifying such as: two strong legs, sharp white fangs, her curly hair, etc. Relating verbs to give information about a subject, such as My mum is really cool; It has very thick fur, the rest remains at home, etc. Thinking verbs and feeling verbs to reveal the writer's view, such as the police believe the suspect is armed; I think it is a clever animal, etc. Action verbs, such as Our new puppy bites our shoes; It eats soft food, etc. Adverbs to give additional information about manner, such as fast, gradually, at the tree house, etc. Figurative language, such as simile, metaphor, e.g. John is white as chalk, sat tight, etc. Writing, according to Gere (1985: 4) Writing can be defined into five statements, writing is communication, writing is a form of self-expression, writing is public, writing is rule-governed behavior and writing is a way of learning. Writing is communication, to communicate means to convey knowledge or information about a given subject. Writing is self-expression means you write what you have recorded about your feeling and impressions of the world around you. Writing is public means that the writers display their language in public. Writing is governed by rule means that you designate your writing in paragraph, sentences, usage, spelling, word, order and punctuation. Writing is learning means that writing and learning are linked because both are new ways of seeing the world. In this research the writer focuses to the writing is governed by rules, especially types of text, especially: Descriptive Text. The purpose of a descriptive is to make the reader see, hear, or otherwise experience something. The writer must use words to create the impression, and these words must be carefully chosen. Good details are important. Effective descriptive appeals to the senses. You know what something is like by seeing it, or by smelling, tasting or touching it. The best way to make a reader feel that what you are describing is real is to appeal to the senses.

4. Research Method

Classroom Action Research is a process that gives credence to the development of powers of reflective thought, discussion, decision and action by ordinary people participating in collective research on private troubles that they have in common (Berg, 2004: 195). Action research is a collaborative approach to research that provides people with the means to take systematic action in an effort to resolve specific problems. The basic action research procedural routine involves four stages: Identifying the research questions, gathering the information to answer the questions, analyzing and interpreting the information, and sharing the results with the participants. In short, the action research process is: plan, act, observe and reflect. On this occasion the researcher would try to implement the genre-based approach process by using novel. The teacher would try to introduce one of the literary works to the students. They had to start to appreciate the novel. They had to see many valuable lessons in it. At the end the maximum result would get to have the best solution in teaching and learning process.

5. Discussion

The focus of this study goes to the implementation of Genre-Based Approach in improving students' descriptive writing ability through Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels as role models. There are two problems that needed to be identified: First, the particular things, people and place of descriptive text in Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels as role models in improving students' writing ability. And second, how are particular things, people and places of Descriptive text in Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels as role model implemented in improving students' writing ability.

Descriptive text

It is used to describe a particular thing or object, place or person. Example: My Bike. Generic structure: First, Identification, it is a statement or a short paragraph that identifies the object that is going to be described. It is usually interesting and able to provoke the readers to be eager to read the text. Second, Description, it may consist of one or several paragraphs. This part is used to give sufficient description about the object as mentioned in the identification part. The description of the object can be done according to different angels, such as size, length, strength, color, height, condition of the location, weather, qualities, shape, etc. Language Features: Use certain nouns, such as teacher, house, my cat, bridge, etc. Use simple present tense.

Use detailed noun phrases to give information about a subject, such as: It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, the deaf person, etc. Various adjectives which are describing, numbering, classifying such as: two strong legs, sharp white fangs, her curly hair, etc. Relating verbs to give information about a subject, such as My mum is really cool; It has very thick fur, the rest remains at home, etc. Thinking verbs and feeling verbs to reveal the writer's view, such as the police believe the suspect is armed; I think it is a clever animal, etc. Action verbs, such as Our new puppy bites our shoes; It eats soft food, etc. Adverbs to give additional information about manner, such as fast, gradually, at the tree house, etc. Figurative language, such as simile, metaphor, e.g. John is white as chalk, sat tight, etc.

Role models of people

Jenifer Parker, the protagonist.

“She was a slender, dark haired girl of twenty-four with a pale skin, an intelligent mobile face and green thoughtful eyes. It was a face that was attractive rather than beautiful, a face that reflected pride and courage and sensitivity a face that would be hard to forget”. (Sheldon: 18).

Use of adjectives, such as: slender, dark, pale, intelligent, green, attractive, beautiful, courage and hard.

Abner Parker, Jenifer's father

“He was a mixture of English and Irish and Scottish blood. He was of medium height, with black hair and green-blue eyes. He was a compassionate man with a deep-rooted sense of justice. He was not interested in money, he was interested in people”. (Sheldon: 34).

Use of noun phrase, such as: a mixture of English and Irish and Scottish blood, black hair, green-blue eyes, a compassionate man and a deep-rooted sense of justice.

Robert Di Silva, the fiery District Attorney for the County of New York representative of The People.

“He was short and powerfully built, with an unfashionable graying crew cut. He had been a boxer in his youth and his nose and face bore the scars of it. And he was also a fiercely ambitious man who had fought his way up to his present position with neither money nor connections to help him”. (Sheldon: 16).

Use of vivid verbs, such as: He had been a boxer and his nose and face bore the scars of it.

Michael Moretti, the criminal.

“He was a silent, handsome man in his early thirties. He was tall and lean, with a face formed of converging planes that gave him a rugged, feral look. He Had fashionably styled black hair, a prominent chin with an expected dimple in it and deeply set olive-black eyes. He wore a tailored gray suit, a light blue shirt with darker blue silk tie and polished, custom-made shoes”. (Sheldon: 15).

Use of adjective clause, such as: He was tall and lean, with a face formed of converging planes that gave him a rugged, feral look.

Adam Warmer, Jenifer's safer.

“He was in his middle thirties, tall and blond and broad-shouldered, with gray-blue inquisitive eyes behind horn-rimmed glasses. He was dressed in a tailored suit that must have cost a fortune”. (Sheldon:47).

Use of adjective phrase, such as: middle thirties, broad-shouldered, gray-blue inquisitive and horn-rimmed.

Role models of places

Keslo, Washington, Jenifer Parker's home town.

“It is a small timber town founded in 1847 by a homesick Scottish surveyor who named it for his home town in Scotland”. (Sheldon: 33).

Use of adverb, such as: founded in 1847 and in Scotland.

Jenifer Parker's apartment in New York.

“It is a tiny apartment on lower Third Avenue, with a fake fireplace in a steep fourth-floor walk-up. It consisted of a small living room with a couch that turned into a lumpy bed, a tiny bathroom with a window that someone long ago had painted over with black paint, sealing it shut. The furniture looked like that something that could have been donated by the Salvation Army”. (Sheldon: 37).

Use of Present tense, such as: It is a tiny apartment.

The Criminal Courts Building at 155 Leonard Street, Jenifer Parker's first time work place.

“It was impressive, paneled and decorated in quiet good taste. There was a large desk with three chairs in front of it and a comfortable leather chair behind it, a conference table with a dozen chairs around it and wall cabinets filled with law books. On the walls were framed autographed pictures of J. Edgar Hoover, John Linsay, Richard Nixon and Jack Demsey.”. (Sheldon:19).

Use of pronoun, such as: It was impressive.

Sing Sing Prison.

“It is situated at the town of Ossining, thirty miles up state of Manhattan on the east bank of the Hudson River, overlooking the Tappan Zee and Havestraw Bay”. (Sheldon: 77).

Use of Passive voice, such as: It is situated at the town of Ossining.

Jenifer Parker and Kenneth Barley's new office.

“It is a larger office in the five hundred blocks on Fifth Avenue. The new quarters were simply furnished and consisted of three small rooms: one for Jenifer, one for Ken and one for a secretary”. (Sheldon:132).

Use of comparative adjective, such as: It is a larger office in the five hundred blocks on Fifth Avenue.

Role models of Objects

The accused criminals.

“They were poor and defeated and lost. They were dregs, the misfits whom the affluent society had passed by”. (Sheldon: 75).

Use of relative pronoun, such as: The misfits whom the affluent society had passed by.

Jenifer's foolish of the case

“A man detached himself from the group around Di Silva and hurried towards her. He was carrying a manila envelope. He walked past her to another young assistant district attorney and handed him the envelope. The Chief wants you to give this to Stela”. (Sheldon: 39).

Use of reflexive pronoun, such as: A man detached himself from the group around Di Silva and hurried towards her.

The Suspect's rights.

“You have the right to have an attorney present before you make any statement”. (Sheldon: 29).

Use of Reported Speech, such as: ““You have the right to have an attorney present before you make any statement”.

The order.

“Our revered District attorney specially asked for you. He wants to make sure nothing goes wrong”. (Sheldon: 51).

Use of metaphor, such as: He wants to make sure nothing goes wrong.

End of the story.

“In a small law of in Keslo, Washington, Jenifer Parker sat alone looking at the inauguration on television. She watched until the last of the ceremony was over and Adam and Mary Beth and Samantha had left the podium, surrounded by secret service men. Then Jenifer turned off the television set and watched images fade into nothingness”. (Sheldon: 503).

Use of figurative speech, such as: Then Jenifer turned off the television set and watched images fade into nothingness.

The application of genre-based approach theory

Derewianka (2003:146) stated that the practical implementation sequence of teaching materials based on Genre based approach theory is: Develop an understanding of the field, Familiarization with the genre, Developing control over the genre, Independent construction, Extending and critiquing and Creative exploitation of the genre.

What to do in the stages of text-based teaching or learning:

Building knowledge of the field

Aims:

  • To help students understand the text type and they are learning or focusing on, the audience for the particular text, and the context in which the text occurs.

  • To activate students' background knowledge in relation to the text.

  • To familiarize students with the topic in general.

  • To raise students' interest and create expectation.

Modeling of text

  • Give examples of text that students will produce or write later.

  • Discuss the purposes for which the text is used in English society.

  • Point out particular features of the text type. This means talking about text or generic or schematic structure.

  • Talk about the linguistic features of each text type.

  • Practice on specific lexicon grammatical points or sentence patterns.

Joint construction of text

  • Teacher and students develop a certain type of text together, this can be done by the whole class, small group.

  • Teacher acts as a guide and students enter into more active participation in learning to write

  • Before writing, students may gather information by:

Independent construction of text

  • Students, in groups or individually, develop or write a text.

  • They may consult their teacher to make first draft.

  • They use the knowledge gathered from previous stages or phases especially the text structure, linguistic feature and social function.

From some observations above which have been made showed that there is a great appreciation from the students to understand more about the material of the lesson. They are more concerned in leaning the subject. They have improved positively.

Conclusions

  • The use Sidney Sheldon's novel Rage of Angels has significantly improved students' skill in writing.

  • Genre-Based Approach has positively contributed to the students writing of Descriptive text.

  • Classroom action research has simulated students in understanding the materials in teaching learning process.

  • Teachers are continuously suggested to use any kinds of teaching methods in their classes.

  • Writing as the most important skill must be able to be mastered well by the students as their value-added for the future.

References

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