KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 228–236

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1. Introduction

Language is one of the most important thing that human need to interact with other people. Language cannot be separated from the human being, its a media to say anything and express the ideas, by using language, people can interact well, exchanging their ideas and also to fulfill their needs. Halliday (1994:69) states that when exchanging and expressing ideas, human being performs two roles namely giving and demanding, for the commodity such as information and goods or services. In systemic functional linguistic (SFL), it is named speech function. Speech function is a way of someone delivers ideas in communication to make listeners understand the ideas well. Speech function itself can be divided into four kinds: statement, question, command and offer.

This study refers to the use of speech functions in the text Romeo and Juliet. The writer found that there are many types of speech function in the text Romeo and Juliet. The writer considers that types of speech function in the text Romeo and Juliet are important to be analyzed to show the most dominant types of speech function.

This study also deeply explains about speech functions which contain of two parts. They are giving and demanding which are the essence of communication must be noticed well to avoid misunderstandings occur towards the speaker and the listener. When the speaker utters something through question, he/she is actually requiring the listener to receive it. While requiring give information when he/she utters something through command or offer. The writer aware this issue also found in the text Romeo and Juliet so that she analyzed the speech functions of the text. In case there are some research through this theory and found some conclusions, for the examples about the adverbial clause in Romeo and Juliet Drama. The write chose this text because Romeo and Juliet Drama is the greatest creation of the best author William Shakespeare and speech function are used in the text.

2. Literature Review

Functional grammar

Functional Grammar views language as source for making meaning. Halliday (1994: 1) states language is a system of meaning. When people use language, their language act contains the expression of meaning. Functional grammar is an application function approach that shows language first and the system of communication and also sees how the grammar itself is organized to allow the speakers or the writers to exchange meaning.

Textual function is when the language is organized in written to the real world and any other linguistic events.

Interpersonal function is when the language is used to enable people to participate incommunicative acts with other people, to express and to understand their feelings, attitude and judgments. According to Gerot and Wignell (1994: 13), interpersonal function refers to a speaker's attitudes and judgments. These are meaning for acting upon the language with others. There are two levels of interpersonal function: they are speech function and mood. At the level of discourse and semantics, human being performs two roles namely Giving and Demanding. The commodity exchanged may be either information or Goods and Services as explained as follow:

Giving/information = statement (S)

Demand/information = question (Q)

Give/goods and services = offer (O)

Demand/goods and services = command (O)

Metafunction

Metafunction is the function of language based on human use of the language. The meaning of metafunction is to represent, to exchange, and to organize experiences. These metafunctions technically are termed as ideational, interpersonal, and textual function.

Interpersonal metafunction

Paziraei (2013:44) states that the interpersonal metafunction shows the way the addressor and the addressee interact and how they use the language to maintain the relations between them. During a conversation the addresser may give something to the addressee or ask something from the addressee. This metafunction is an exchanging.

This exchanging may be an offer, a command, a declarative, or an interrogative. The interpersonal function is realized at two levels namely at the level of semantics and lexicogrammar which is term mood. At the level of semantic human being perform two roles namely giving and demanding. The commodity exchange may be either information or goods and services.

Yipei and Lingling (2013: 93) states that delivering a speech is a typical interpersonal activity, and whether a speech succeeds or not, to a large degree, depends on the way speaker intrudes himself into the interaction. How to arouse audience interest and enthusiasm is the key point.

Speech functions

Ye (2006:36) states that speech functions are an action or performance done by language users such as asking, commanding and answering in order to fulfil the intention of the speakers and listeners. Speech functions are used as the medium exchanging experiences in order to fulfil their needs.

Sulistyowati (2010:71) states that to communicate effectively, we should clearly organize the messages that we want to convey through conversation. The organization of messages involves giving and demanding and this exchange might be more complicated than it seems. If we are demanding something, it means we are inviting to give, and if we are giving something, it means we are inviting to receive. Halliday (1994: 68) states that the most fundamental types of speech functions, which lie behind all the more specific types, are just two (1) giving and (2) demanding. Either the speaker is giving something to the listener or he is demanding something from him. Even these elementary categories already involve complex notions i.e. giving means `inviting to 40 receive', and demanding means `inviting to give'. The speaker is not only doing something himself, but s/he also requiring something of the listener. These two basic types of speech functions related to the nature of the commodity being exchanged. This may be either (a) good-&-services or (b) information, as described in following table.

Table 1

The Basic Types of Speech function.


Commodity Roles in exchange (a) Good – and –Services (b) Information
(1) Giving “Offer” Would you like a cup of Coffee “Statement” He gives me a cup of coffee
(2) Demanding “Command” Give me a cup of coffee “Question” What is he give to me
Source: Halliday (1994: 69)

Halliday (1994: 69) states that there are four primary types of speech function; they are statement, offer, question, and command that realized by Mood to perform two roles, they are giving and demanding. When communicate with other people, we are actually trying to do something with our language. It may be either to give information, or demand something.

Types of speech function

Statement

Grolier (1992:44) states that statement is a way of giving information by stating or the act of stating in speech and writing. Statement can be positive and negative. Statement is usually begun with subject, followed by verb or auxiliary verb and ended by full stop.

Formula: Subject + verb/aux

For example:

- My uncle       left for       Timor Leste to serve in the army

Subject             Verb       _______________Statement

Question

Grolier (1990:197) states that question is an interrogative question which is used to seek confirmation or to ask something or an inquiry that invites or calls for reply. Question is a way of demanding information in the form of interrogative statement that may be either information question (wh-question) or yes/no question and which inquire reply from listener. A question begins with auxiliary verb or WH-Question and will be ended with question mark (?)

Formula: aux. V or wh-question + S + V + question mark (?)

For example:

Do                you       like       we spend our days in Bali?

Aux.Verb      Subject       Verb _______________ Question

Offer

Grolier (1992:268) states that offer as an expression of willingness to give or do something, or to put forward for acceptance, rejection. Offer also can be definitude as a way of giving good and service to someone. Offer is usually begun with modal and always ended with a question mark (?).

Formula: modal + S + V

For example:

Would       you         like      help her?

Modal      Subject      Verb _______ Offer

Command

Grolier (1992:127) states that command is a way to receive information, good or service by forcing the listener to give them. Command also is a way of demanding good and service in form of imperative statement whether in the form of positive or negative command. In command sentences, the subject is omitted. It is begun with the predicate and it is usually ended with exclamation mark (!).

Formula: Verb + Object + Exclamation mark (!)

For example:

Open      the door!

Verb       Object ____________Command

The four type of speech function of statement, question, offer and command find their realization in mood (declarative, interrogative and imperative) which an aspect of interpersonal meaning at the level of lexicogrammar is. All the speech functions have marked representative of mood except offer.

Saragih (2010:20) states that in act interaction, the speech function is in initiated by speaker (addresser) and then the listener (addressee) responds to the speech function. Speech function recognize a correlation between the different structure of an initiating move and the structure of a responding move; position and negative responding speech function

3. Research Method

In this study the writer used descriptive qualitative method, because the final result of this study was analyzed by four types of speech function in text Romeo and Juliet, they were: statement, question, offer and command. Nazir (2003: 55) states that descriptive qualitative method was one used to make descriptive of situation, even or accumulate the basic data. This means that this research found the evidences to prove the truth of certain theory but didn't intend to find a new theory. Bogdan & Biklen (1982) states that descriptive means the data collected were in the form of words rather than numbers. Descriptive qualitative design tried to analyze the data with all of their richness as closely as possible to the form in which they were recorded and transcribed, and the written result of the research contains quotation from the data to illustrate and substantiate the presentation.

4. Discussion

Having analyzed the data, there were some findings that could be seen. The findings were separated into kinds of speech function, and the research findings of the study of the type of speech function were presented in table.

Table 2

The number of the types of Speech Function.


No Scene Amount of Speech Function Types of Speech Function
S Q O C
1 Act 1, Scene I to III 88 41 13 14 20
2 Act III, Scene I to V 119 75 19 11 14
3 Act V, Scene I to II 58 38 8 5 7
Total 265 154 40 30 41
Note: S = Statement; Q = Question; O = Offer; C = Command

The table 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 show that the total numbers of speech function was 265. The dominantly use in the text Romeo and Juliet was Statement (154) and then follow by Command (41), Question (40), and Offer (30)

Then, this occurrence also was shown in the percentage. The following result was obtained in the table:

Table 3

The Percentage of Types of Speech Function.


No Types of Speech Function Number (F) Percentage % (X)
1 Statement 154 58%
2 Question 40 15%
3 Command 41 15,5%
4 Offer 30 11,5%
Total 265 100%

From the table 4.4 the percentage of statement was 58%, Question was 15%, Command was 15,5%, and Offer was 11,5%.

There were 4 types of speech function that researcher analyzed. From 4 types, there were 265 sentences of speech function found in the text Romeo and Juliet. Statement were 154 (58%), Question were 40 (15%), Command 41 (15,5%), and there were offer 30 (11,5%).

The speech function dominantly used was Statement (58%). The highest proportion in the use of speech functions due to the fact that speech deals with give information to the audience. Statement means that give information to the audience/listener. Giving means invite to receive. When the speaker said something in the form of statement, it means that the speaker expected the audience to receive the information.

Figure 1

The Percentages and Frequency of the Speech Function.

fig-1.jpg

5. Conclusions

Based on the data analysis, the conclusion drawn is that there were four types of Speech Function found in the Text Romeo and Juliet Drama in the selected Act; act 1 scene I to III, act 3 scenes I to V, and act 5 scene I to II. In collecting the data, some references related to speech function found out in the library. In analyzing the data, first each sentence in each act from the text Romeo and Juliet is underlined, second to identify the types of speech function which are mostly dominant, and the last to find the dominant type of speech function. The text of Romeo and Juliet drama were analyzed on the occurrences of speech function based on the types of speech function on the text Romeo and Juliet drama. There were 265 items, namely statements 154 items (58%), commands 41 items (15,5%), questions 40 items (15%), and offers 30 items (11,5%). And the dominant speech function is statements 154 items (58%).

Statements were the most dominant type of Speech Function used in the Text Romeo and Juliet Drama. It means the way a write delivers a conversation on the text to deliver or entertain the readers, to be narrated in chronological, the stories for the readers are by using statements.

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