Rural community building which is preferred to self-empowerment (self-powered village) aims to transform structures of social, economic, and organization activities, which is initially tend to be subsystemic, traditional, and agricultural become urban economy structure which tends to be modern and industrial. The change is pioneered by the shift of the modern structure and culture into the rural one so that it became the wider modernization of the whole community. It makes the rural atmosphere become closer to the urban structure and culture. In such condition, rural community succeeds to build a rational economic, political, and cultural life. Finally, the rural and urban area can make a good and harmonious mutualism which can be an advantage for both communities.
The-one-sided building in the rural area become the priority for the central government. In their national policy of regional development of 2015-2019, it is explained about the effort of boosting rural community welfare, life quality, and poverty eradication through fulfilling basic needs, facility, and economy building, and also the utilization of sustainable natural resources via community empowerment. These all aim to push the development of sustainable rural area which is expected to have the security of society, economy, and ecology and maintain the connection of rural and urban area .
The fixed strategy to empower the rural area are business development based on local potential, improving the capacity or quality of electricity, telecommunication network, and transportation network, sustainable assistance in planning, development, and management of village, embodiment independence food as well as to facilitate increasing public awareness in achieving independence food and energy of rural areas. Rural economic development is done through the increasing of the village economic activities based on excellent commodities, increased productivity, and the implementation of green economy. Providing and increasing production facilities and infrastructure, processing, and markets village. Increasing the access of the village to capital business, marketing, and market information and developing supporting institutions of rural economic such as village cooperatives, village-owned enterprises, and micro-economic institutions .
Malang Regency is one of the regencies in Indonesia located in the Province of East Java and is the second widest regency after Banyuwangi Regency among 38 regencies and cities in East Java. This is supported with its width of the area 3.534,86 km or similar to 353.486 ha and the population in accordance data of Central Statistics Data as many as 2.544.315 people (2015 spread in 33 districts, 378 villages, 12 urban villages). Kabupaten Malang is also known as the place which is rich in potential for agricultural such as plantation, physic gardens, and others. In addition, it is also known for its tourism objects. Malang itself has many villages that could potentially be a self-powered village that could prosper in society. However, it turns out that among 378 villages in Malang, there are 16 villages in disadvantaged region category such as Purwodadi Village (Donomulyo), Kepatihan Village (Tirtoyudho), Kaliasri Village (Kalipare), Dawuhan Village (Poncokusumo), Pandansari Village (Ngantang), Jombok Village (Ngantang), Putukrejo Village (Kalipare), Sumberkerto Village (Pagak), Gajahrejo Village (Gedangan), Sumberejo Village (Poncokusumo), Kidal Village (Tumpang), Tegalrejo Village (Sumbermanjing Wetan), Sido Luhur Village (Lawang), Srigonco Village (Bantur), Taji Village (Jabung), and the most disadvantaged one, Sumberpetung Village (Kalipare). Based on the mentioned background, purpose of this research is to make: (1) village mapping of economic potential based on productive potential localized in Malang Regency, East Java; (2) village mapping of potential alternative energy based on local wisdom in Malang; (3) developing self-powered economic and energy community through controlled villages of Malang. The used limitation in this research is: (1) the scope of the research area is only covering on Malang Regency, East Java; (2) measured the potential of the research is only covering the potential alternative energy and economically productive activities based on local wisdom.
1. Self-powered Village
The purpose is to increase rural development, capability, and independence to the village and the community that goes with it. The self-powered village is the answer to break the cycle of poverty that crept in. Through the developed dimensions, such as food, health, and energy, the quality of life of villagers will be enhanced. The whole points of the self-powered village are: (a) infrastructure existence, such as schools, places of worship and community halls; (b) rising incomes and welfare; (c) sustainable use of natural resources; (d) ability to support the self-development; (e) ability to fulfill their own needs; (f) ability to manage on their own affairs; (g) independence and autonomy; (h) does not depend on government; (i) having other sources of income; (j) good communities to build the village; (k) having rights and production assessment; (l); improving skills; (m) the independence and empowerment; (n) transparant to the government; (o) the existence of rules of the village; (p) should be able to finance the village authorities.
Marwan Jafar confirms for rural communities should take benefit from the village fund provided for self-reliance and community empowerment. One of the programs that serve as a national movement is to embody the 5,000 self-powered villages from the village and provided through village enterprises. The goal is to make it easy to develop village economy which is expected to boost rural community welfare.
2. Self-powered Energy Village
Based on the policy of Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 32 year 2008 about the provision, usage, and marketing of the biofuel as the alternative fuel on Article 1 verse 12, it is mentioned that self-powered energy village is a village which can produce energy or fuel based on renewable resources, which includes biofuel as the alternative energy, to fulfill and provide 60% demands of the village need on the fuel and energy. So based on presidential policy no. 05 2006 on energy, it can be concluded that the self-powered village divided into 2 based on the raw material used: (1) villages based on non-agricultural energy sources. This model is trying to establish an alternative source of energy as heat solar system, water, wind, and biogas. (2) villages based on agriculture energy. It is a model that produces energy source like biomass and biofuel derived from agricultural and forest.
3. Self-powered Economy Village
The initiation to build economic empowerment based on local wisdom is all activities concerned with economic built with the results of product/services produced in terms of human resources native from that particular area, by means of digging or developing available resources. Success in the economy cannot be separated from the village capability inconsistent building and planning, participative and agreed by in the planning document and village budgeting. The village enterprises are established as the institutions which are responsible to control and manage the rural economy. The persistence of the economic organization have initiated the village alone. Economically productive areas of the economy are carried out by households and economic business groups or farmer groups, the farmers cooperative, agricultural cooperative to raise revenue, create jobs and food security in the local community. Usually, adjustable economically productive potential and the skills are possessed by the surrounding community. There are three strategies to improve the productive economic empowerment, training, and development. Empowerment activities include: (a) improving the supply of infrastructure and the supporting; (b) supporting through development and production, clusters to support the provision of adequate infrastructure; (c) prioritizing micro/informal sector in order to support the development of the rural economy, particularly in low and poverty aspect; (d) facilitating business and cultural training of entrepreneurship management and technical assistance. Development activities include: (a) promoting a balanced competitive diversification; (b) increasing the capacity of management; (c) enhancing and expanding marketing networks and synergy relations between small industries and large industries. While the development includes: (a) an increase in resources and institutions through training education business skills and business management; (b) the creation of cooperation and business partnership supported by local, private, and university organizations; and (c) broadening access to capital source especially banking and other capital community.
A common purpose of the productive economic undertakings is to improve the quality of people in social welfare, increase the role in the process of industrialization, the diversion of technology, and improve the quality resources along with strengthening, increasing the role of the community as economic growth, job creation, increased competitiveness, and increase the income in the low income citizens, and quality of increasing independency of rural communities, as one social capital of cooperation network to strengthen bargaining, increased support for the establishment and development of industrial cluster and improve technology based support for application of effective technology, and the primary commodity regional development.
This research is designed to scale regional reaching Malang Regency. The research will conduct deep studies and analysis to the point where recommendations model mapping appropriate to follow up later. Qualitative data will be checked dealing with conducting observations, clarification, and validation through in-depth interviews. Through interviews, the data is expected to be stronger and elaborating expected village potential mapping energy and economic related to the good substantial issues, strategy, and the program. The data is collected through the survey to capture preliminary data of qualitative baseline data, documentation to check the truth of the data through documentative evidence, and observation to see in real terms of the working conditions of the productive economy taken representatively. The collected data is analyzed and directed to obtain the idea of the potential of the village of self-powered energy and economic in Malang Regency, East Java. So it will be stated that analysis techniques the data used discourses analysis. The data analysis process is: (a) data grouping according to research purposes to achieve; (b) analyzing data through the checking, editing and tabulation accordance with the kind of data. This phase is using descriptive qualitative and (c) formulating preliminary finding and recommendation drafts.
5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
Malang topography is explained as following: Tiltness of the slope 0-2% which involve following districts; Bululawang, Gondanglegi, Tajinan, Turen, Kepanjen, Pagelaran and Pakisaji The tiltness of the slope 2-15% involves Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau, Pakis, Dampit, Sumberpucung, Kromengan, Pagak, Kalipare, Donomulyo, Bantur, Ngajum, and Gedangan. The tiltness of the slope 15-40% involves Sumbermanjing Wetan, Wagir, and Wonosari; dan the tiltness of the slope 40% involves Pujon, Ngantang, Kasembon, Poncokusumo, Jabung, Wajak, Ampelgading, and Tirtoyudo. The good discharge generally varies according to the condition of geology and its topography. The valley of brands generally have a varied discharge of 10-20 L/second, extends to the valley that meant to Singosari. Toward the east, west, and north, the potential of groundwater and ebbs in the region is divided by volcanically by increasing the slope of a slope. Areas with the height of over about 300-500 m having the potential for development clean water supply is very small. Malang Regency has the will deploy as many as 684 springs. Most of the water is used for irrigation near the source or flow into a channel or riverbed toward the flow of the base of a primary flow of the Brantas River. District capitals in Malang Regency are usually located in an area that the potential water is limited and the spring is a form of the expected provision of clean water. Because of this, the springs are expected to be clean water supply which is suggested to district capitals in Malang Regency.
Sumberagung is part of the Ngantang Districts, Malang Regency. Sumberagung haw 6 hamlets spread in the region; Sumbermulyo, Dermosari, Sumbergadung, Rejosari, Kebonsari, and Bendorejo. Sumberagung borders: the northern border is Tulungrejo Village, western border is Mulyorejo village, the southern border is Kaumrejo Village, and the eastern border is adjacent to a forest. The area Sumberagung reaches 756.688 ha with a population density of 5.568 people. Villagers of Sumberagung are dominated by productive age groups 77,35 % or as much as 4.307 people of a total population of 5.568 people. Most villagers work in the agricultural sector, farming, and trading.
The majority of land Sumberagung Village is a forest with an area reaches 291,300 ha, and other land use in the form of rice fields, settlements, housing, and so forth. Agricultural and estate crops that are produced in this region are coffee, rice, and durian. In the forest area Sumberagung village there are also many bamboo plants, which are often used by the community to make a skewer. Besides agricultural products and plantations, Sumberagung Village also has the potential of natural beauty which is quite promising. In Dukuh Bendorejo, there are highlands that offer the beauty of nature such as lakes, hills, and sunset clearly. In general, Sumberagung village economy has been good enough, this is seen from the low unemployment rate of the community. In Sumberagung village there are various businesses that are developed by the surrounding community from a trade, farming, agriculture, plantation. The existence of governmental organizations / non-governmental organizations such as village unit cooperative, woman cooperative, and village enterprises in Sumberagung Village become one of the supporting factors for the economy in the village. Sumberagung Village community has a high enthusiasm to participate in the success of developing the potential of energy and economic independent villages. Enthusiasm and community participation is one of the keys to the successful development of this village.
Pait Village is located in the Kasembon District, Malang Regency. Pait Village is divided into 5 dukuh namely Dukuh Slatri, Bonjagung, Pait Utara, Bara'an, and Tengil. The Pait Village is adjacent to several villages: in the north, it is adjacent to Wonoagung Village, the west is adjacent to Kasembon Village, the south is bordered by Ngantang District, and the east is adjacent to the forest area. Pait village is the outermost village of Kasembon subdistrict. Pait village has strategic potential with the total area reaches +1.621,788 Ha. In general, Pait village is dominated by agriculture and livestock sectors which still apply traditional management system (land processing, cropping pattern, and commodity of agricultural products). The number of Pait villagers with livelihoods in the agricultural sector has reached 3,272 people, for the people who work as public and private employees of 590, and for the rest, 205 people choose to become entrepreneurs. Pait Village's agricultural products for wetlands (paddy fields) are still dominated by rice seeds and small crops. This happens because of the soil structure that may still be inappropriate for other agricultural superior products outside the rice center. As for the forest area is still dominated by forest wood and durian trees. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of land in the forest area of Pait Village that has not been used productively by the community.
Planning and Mapping of Productive Economy Potential and Alternative Energy
The policy of fiscal decentralization to this village shows a large and progressive form of alignment from the central government of the priority of increasing regional development in the service of the community for the realization of the welfare of rural communities. Through the mapping of energy and economic potentials in the village areas will support the use of village funds to be more focused on productive sectors. To support the realization of independent villages, it is necessary to have a SWOT analysis to facilitate the selection of appropriate strategies in Sumberagung Village and Pait Village.
Model of empowerment of self-powered society of energy and productive economy through assisted villages in Malang Regency, East Java
Local community participation is an essential component of sustainable development in general to meet the needs of present and future generations, while protecting natural resources. The term local participation here is the ability of local communities to influence the outcomes of development plans such as rural development to become energy independent and economic. Villagers can participate in village development from the beginning of planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Community empowerment is necessary because it deals with improving the quality and social and economic conditions of local communities.
Etymologically, empowering comes from the basic word "power" which means strength or ability. Based on this definition, empowerment can be interpreted as a process toward empowerment, or process to obtain power/strength/ability, and/or process of giving power/strength / ability from the party having power to the party which is less or not yet powerless (Ambar Teguh, 2004).
Acquiring and empowering those who have previously had power to the less powerful or empowered often use the term empower. The powerless party is not merely empowered but in the context of empowerment, the party gets a series of learning processes toward empowerment. Empowerment-based development refers to positive actions that have goals in all aspects of life. According to Suparjan and Hempri (2003: 43), empowerment has the meaning of generating resources, opportunities, knowledge, and skills of the community to increase capacity in determining their future. Efforts to improve social status, fulfillment of needs desired by individuals, groups, and communities in various fields through various activities, one of them in the form of education. Empowerment in the form of education is a manifestation of the learning process of the community to gain empowerment, understanding and sensitivity / social awareness so as to have the ability or power. The meaning of the concept of community empowerment, Winarni in Ambar (2004: 79) reveals that the core of empowerment is covering three things, namely development (enabling), strengthening the potential or power (empowering), the creation of independence.
The form of a sustainable village assisted to expect the accompanied village can maximize the potential / local wisdom to improve welfare. As a learning process, empowerment cannot be separated from the necessary stages. Sri Kuntari (2009) empowerment process involves creating enabling atmosphere, strengthening capacity and capacity of society (empowering), guidance and support (supporting), maintaining conducive and balanced condition (forecasting). According to Brandon (1993) said the planning and development of tourism as an economy, should involve the community optimally through local deliberations and consensus. Form of community participation includes six criteria, namely: (1) Involving the local community and other stakeholders in the process of planning and developing ecotourism; (2) Opening opportunities and optimizing opportunities for people to benefit and play an active role in ecotourism activities; (3) Building partnerships with local communities to monitor and prevent negative impacts; (4) Improving the skills of local communities in related areas and supporting the development of ecotourism; (5) Prioritizing local economic improvement and lowering the leakage level, and (6) Increasing public income. However, in practice, there are external and internal factors that influence the participation of the community itself. Internal factors are factors that affect community participation derived from within the community itself such as include: age, gender, occupation, education, and knowledge. While external factors are factors that influence community participation from outside the community itself, which includes: environment, weather, stakeholders involved (local government, village administrators (RT / RW), community leaders and facilitators). Inhibiting factors and self-support include internal factors and external factors in the previous sub-chapter. However, inhibiting factors Tosun (2000) has divided the barriers of community participation into three parts of operational obstacles, structural barriers, and cultural barriers. In previous research Mustapha et al. (2013) has categorized all three types of obstacles.
• Types of operational barriers such as owners' reluctance to share power, centralized public administration, and lack of information.
• Types of structural obstacles are Elite dominance, lack of financial resources, professional attitude, and lack of appropriate laws of the system.
• The types of cultural barriers are Limited ability of the poor, apathy, and low level of awareness in the local community.
Based on the SWOT analysis that has been done in both villages, Sumberagung, Ngantang and Pait villages, in Kasembon there are several community based strategies to achieve energy and economic self-powered communities through the pilot village program, namely: (a) Participation in decision making and management, Village communities are given full rights in making decisions and managing their economic and energy potential. The granting of this full right is accompanied by continuous facilitation in order that all decisions issued will have a good and comprehensive impact on the village community. (b) Participation in the implementation and evaluation, Implementation and evaluation of activities carried out by providing full participation to village communities active in the development of village self-reliance. Implementation of activities is ensured to provide benefits to all segments of the village community, after which the evaluation to see the shortcomings that occur to be immediately improved to improve the quality and service. (c) Developing a typical tourism village program according to the natural and cultural potential of the community. The natural and cultural potency of the village community must be the superior product to be developed and at the same time exhibited to the tourists. (d) Establish community institutions or organizations for the management of community-based tourist villages, Establish conscious wisara (pokdarwis) and conservation groups of renewable energy that can educate rural communities in a sustainable manner. Institutions or groups formed for the independence of the village in terms of economy and energy are ensured to always undertake activities that support economic improvement and awareness of using environmentally friendly energy. Members of such institutions or groups are a combination of village apparatus and village community representatives. (e) Building coordination between government and community groups with capacity building of village institutions, good governance is a governmental agreement created jointly by all elements in a region. Capacity building activities are intended to optimize the role and function of institutions as partners of village government in a harmonious relationship. Capacity building of this village institution also includes activities of increasing human resources (capacity building) and management. The process of coaching and mentoring is done through organizing assistance, direction and facilitation of community institutions. At the advanced level there will be continuous control and supervision in order to avoid the quality of human resources, management and service of village institutions. (f) Assistance to the community to oversee the process, targeted communities should be provided with consistent and continuous assistance to begin the process as an independent community. Assistance in question is to conduct socialization, counseling or training that has a clear purpose. The activities undertaken must be mutually related so as to have a significant impact on improving the knowledge and awareness of the village community. (g) Increasing the capability of village human resources, The ability of human resources (human resources) of rural communities should be improved in order to make a village into an independent village, prosperous and able to accept change. Changes in the mindset and revitalization of the village community are needed, these changes can be achieved by building commitment, motivating, enhancing ability, and how to behave. All activities in improving the human resource capacity of rural communities will be adjusted to the conditions and culture of local villagers. (h) Providing counseling, direction and explanation to the community for economic and energy independence, Counseling, direction and explanation to the village community on economic and energy independence is done gradually and continuously. The above activities are implemented based on the schedule that has been prepared. This activity will involve all the equipments and villagers, the purpose of this activity is for villagers to have an awareness of the benefits gained when becoming an economically and energy independent village.
6. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Self-powered village pioneering through the development of village-based on sustainable local potential can be established in the northern part of Malang Regency such as in Sumberagung and Pait Village. Both villages have potential to build kind of eco-tourism. The support of economic potential will be the exploration of local products (such as coffee, dairy products, fish, agriculture, plantation, and bamboo products) and the socio-cultural community will be a great basis of it. A model of community empowerment and economic energy through the University-supervised village was educated in the relevant strategy of community empowerment (community-based). The major obstacles are the insight about economic opportunities, a willingness to more developed and skills in productive activities with variety from the local products.
Suggestions that can be given after this research is deeper and continuous observation is needed and to get the data more accurate. Differentiation in selecting villages can be done to obtain the research more diverse and could be implemented broader. Community assisting is in the form of (a) participation in decisions and management, (b) participation in the implementation and evaluation, (c) developing program of unique tourist village which appropriates to natural resources and culture of society, (d) establishing the community organizations to manage community-based tourist village, (e) maintaing coordination between the government and some village institution to build community capacities, (f) assistance to the community in process controling, (g) increasing human resources, and (h) providing information, direction and explanation for the community to be more self-powered economic and energy