KnE Life Sciences | The UGM Annual Scientific Conference Life Sciences 2016 | pages: 149–155

, , , , , , , and

1. Introduction

The various goat breed raised by Indonesian traditional farmers with the level of the spread of widespread in the whole of Indonesia. Pamungkas [1], stated that there are 13 the goat across Indonesia and the present condition showed that some of the Indonesia local goats have steadily decreased and endangered, one of them is a Gembrong Goat. Based on the report the World Watch List for Domestic to Animal, in 1997 a population of Gembrong Goat as many as 100 heads [2], while the population is not currently more than 50 heads [3,4].

One of the efforts to rescue and conserve Gembrong Goats is crossbreeding with another goat breed, likely Etawah Grade (EG) for maintaining existence Gembrong Goats through the offsprings, result of the grading-up with Etawah Grade Goats [4,5]. Etawah Grade does be chosen as acceptor because it is the most dominant local goat in Indonesia and have a good productivity. In this case, expected from the crossbreeding program was obtained a new breed that has the relationship or blood composition approaching Gembrong Goat with high productivity, and so that it will develop widely.

The Crossbreeding program through artificial insemination (AI) can be used as one of the activities ex-situ conservation and selection program to the improvement of the genetic quality [6]. The level of gestation by AI program on goats in Indonesia was variated greatly, it can reach up to 78 % [7]. This aim of the study was to find the result of AI using the frozen semen of Gembrong Goats on the Etawa Grade does.

2. Material and Methods

This research was conducted for 4 mo (March 2016 to June 2016) at the Faculty of Animal Science, UGM. Eight heads Etawah Grade does was selected, i.e. four heads with black and white hair color (HP) and four heads with brown and white hair color (CP). Etawa Grade does age above 4 yr, with the range of weight 32 kg to 57 kg and body conditioning score (BCS) 3 till 4 (five scales). The goats were individually pen (0.75 m × 1.5 m). The basal feed was consisted an elephant grass chopping and concentrate feed (NutrivitⓇ), the feed was given 3.5 % on dry mater (DM) based, twice daily at 08.00 am and 03.00 pm. the water was given adlibitum.

All of the Etawah Grade does be estrous synchronized using 0.5 mL prostaglandin f2α hormone (lutelyzeⓇ) that injected once in intramuscular. The estrous observation was done during 60 h after synchronized by the histology epithelial cells of the vagina and the visual sign of estrous such as behavior and vulva condition. AI was conducted after the onset of estruos through intravaginal used the frozen semen of Gembrong Goat which produced by Centre of Artificial Insemination Bureau (Balai Besar Inseminasi Buatan) Singosari, East Java, Indonesia. Spermatozoa quality of frozen semen of Gembrong Goat evaluated in a microscopically before it was used. Gestation determined by transrectal ultrasonography (Honda Electronics Toyohashi Aichi Japan) on 50 d after AI. Descriptive analysis was applied in the study.

3. Result and Discussion

The frozen semen of Gembrong Goat was evaluated by microscopically to find out the motility and viability. The result of the spermatozoa motility is 80 %, with the criteria that the mass movement of spermatozoa is still very active and fast towards the front, the little sperms that are not moving (dead). The result of the spermatozoa viability is 85 %. The results showed that spermatozoa in the frozen semen of Gembrong Goat which used in the program were good condition and quality to applied. Bintara [4] reported that the motility and viability of spermatozoa Gembrong Goat was extended with three different kinds of extender in East Java (the raw material of frozen semen was produced by Centre of Artificial Insemination Bureau Singosari) are 82 % till 89 % and 88 % till 92 %.

The estrous observation was done for 60 h (+12 h, +24 h, +48 h, and +60 h) after estrous synchronized to find out about response and successful. Observations on the epithelial cells of the vagina is a simple method can be used to characterize the phase of estrous cycles in livestock based on the form and characteristics of the cell. The epithelial cells of the vagina categorized into three types, that are parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells [8]. The estrous phase-based observation of the histology epithelial cells of the vagina of the Etawah Grade does in the research is shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Estrous phase based observation of the histology epithelial cells of the vagina of the Etawah Grade does be estrous synchronized using pgf2α hormone.

Number of identification Observation time of estrous phase
Before injected +12 h + 24 h +48 h +60 h
CP2 diestrus proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus
CP3 proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus metestrus
CP4 proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus metestrus
CP5 diestrus diestrus proestrus estur metestrus
HP3 proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus metestrus
HP4 proestrus proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus
HP9 proestrus proestrus proestrus estrus metestrus
HP11 diestrus diestrus proestrus proestur metestrus

The phase of estrous cycles cannot be separated from the process of a change that occurs in the epithelial cells of the vagina. Every phase of estrous cycles has a different each of percentage and proportion of the epithelial cells of the vagina. In non-estrous phase, the percentage of the intermediate cells is very dominant, while in estrous phase the superficial cell is greater. Metestrus phase was characterized by the most percentage an intermediate cells, but if the number of the superficial cells have many, so categorized in proestrus phase. In diestrus phase the percentage of the parabasal cells is dominant. The superficial cells found very much in estrous phase than other cells [9]. The imaging result based on observation of the histology epithelial cells of the vagina of the Etawah Grade does in the research is shown in Fig. 1.

The Etawa Grade does was used in the research indicated the symptoms and signs of estrus very clear based on visual observation. The visual observation was done with behavior and vulva condition of the Etawa Grade does. The goats behavior was estrous are agitated, sounded and flicked the tail, while the vulva conditions as the estrous signs that is happened swelling, reddish colored and slimy (produce the mucus or a clear liquid). The percentage of Etawa Grade does be estrous synchronized has the onset of estrous is equal to 100 %. This result indicates that 0.5 mL PGF2α hormones injection in intramuscular be effective to estrous synchronization on the goats.

Artificial Insemination was conducted 12 h to 20 h after the the onset of estrous [10]. Artificial insemination was done with the intravaginal method, where the deposition of spermatozoa directly into parts of the vagina using insemination gun and speculum who had been lubricated vaseline gell. In general, the methods of goats AI both intravaginal and intracervix easier carry out compared with intrauterine, that requires expertise and equipment specifically [11]. The does position with the conditions of hind legs appointed in order to facilitate the AI process.

Figure 1

The phase of estrous cycles based imaging of the histology epithelial cells of the vagina of the Etawah Grade does be estrous synchronized usin pgf2α hormone, (a) Parabasal cell, (b) Intermediate cell with many nuclei, (c). Superficial cell, and (d) Intermediate cell with few nuclei.


The result of the AI program can be seen based the number of does pregnant, gestations of does carry out using ultrasonography (USG) with the transrectal method on the 50 d after inseminated. The implementation of transrectal ultrasonography had been by entering the probe into the rectum of goats to see the uterus conditions, probe first lubricated using vaseline gel. The gestation number of Etawah Grade does after USG test is 0 or not occurring gestation. Gestation was not obtained on this AI program, caused technical factor likely inseminator skills. The inseminator is key factor and very determine the successful of AI program for goat because the implementation of the AI program for goat is required the special skill and commonly different from artificial insemination in cattle and buffalo.

The application of AI for goat in Indonesia still insecurity pilot project and research. The results of the study [7], reported that the application of AI through intrauterine with and without estrous synchronization on the Etawa Grade Goat, Kacang Goat, and BoerKa Goat was produced the percentage of successful in the first and second insemination (re-insemination) is 77.78 % and 78.33 % respectively and the S/C is 2.13, so the AI for the goat is feasible to do with the purpose of a crossbreeding. The main problems in application of AI technology, are (i) the quality of frozen semen is low, (ii) the reproduction performance of does as an aseptor is varied, (iii) a technique and time of insemination is not right, and (iv) ineffective breeding management, especially reproduction management [12].

4. Conclusions

Artificial insemination program on the Etawah Grade does use frozen semen of Gembrong Goat was not produced gestation, although the frozen semen of Gembrong Goat has a good quality to applied AI and the response of estrous synchronization on the Etawah Grade does show 100 %.


The study was supported by the grant from Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia in PMDSU (Master Program of Education Leading to Doctoral Degree for Excellent Graduates) program scheme with contract no. 4588/UN1-P.III/LT/DIT-LIT/2016.



Pamungkas FA, Batubara A, Doloksaribu M, Sihite E. Petunjuk Teknis Potensi Beberapa Plasma Nutfah Kambing Lokal Indonesia. [Technical Guidance of Potential of Some Germplasm Goal Local Indonesia]. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan, Departemen Pertanian, Jakarta; 2009. p. 21–23. [in Bahasa Indonesia].


Scherf BD. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. 3rd ed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; 2000. p. 123


Budisatria IGS, Sidadolog JPH, Maharani D, Sumadi. Conserving endangered breed: Case study of Gembrong Goats. Proceeding of the 16th the AAAP Animal Science Congress Vol. 1 10–14 November 2014, Yogyakarta 2014;135–140.


Bintara S, Maharani D, Budisatria IGS, Sidadolog JHP, Sumadi, Elieser S, Batubara A. Sperm quality of Gembrong Goat in Bali, East Java and North Sumatra after extended with Citrate-egg yolk, Tris-egg yolk and AndromedⓇ. Proceeding the 6th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production, Yogyakarta 2015;546–549.


Hasinah H, Inounu I, Subandriyo. Indonesia effort to concerve Gembrong goats. IJSE 2015;8:8894


Leboeuf, B, Restall B, Salomon S. Production and storage of goat sperma for artificial insemination. J Anim Reprod Sci., 2000;62:113–141.


Doloksaribu M, Pamungkas FA, Nasution S, Mahmilia F. Inovasi teknologi inseminasi buatan secara intrauterine dengan menggunakan semen beku terhadap kebuntingan kambing. [Innovation of intrauterine-made insemination technology using frozen semen against goat pregnancy]. Prosiding seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner, Bogor 2011;479–484. [in Bahasa Indonesia].


Boume L.D. Theory and Practice of Histological Technique. 3rd ed. Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh; 1990. p. 85


Mc Donald LD. Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. 4rd ed. Lea and Febiger, London; 1989. p. 243-247


Bhattacharyya HK, Ganai NA, Khan HM Khan. Fertility of local goats of Kashmir using semen of Boer Bucks. Wudpecker J Agric Res 2012;1 346–348.


Inounu I. Upaya meningkatkan keberhasilan inseminasi buatan pada ternak ruminansia kecil. [Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminan]. Wartazoa 2014;24:201–209. [in Bahasa Indonesia].


Tambing SN, Gazali M Purwanto B. Pemberdayaan Teknologi Inseminasi Buatan pada Ternak Kambing. [Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant]. Wartazoa 2001;11:1–9. [in Bahasa Indonesia].



  • Downloads 5
  • Views 32



ISSN: 2413-0877