The Utterance of Money Enticement-Based SMS: A Challenge to the Indonesian Politeness and Unification Sustainability


The paper was inspired by the incoming short message service (SMS) offering financial support through cheques. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of SMS, and to examine the deictic expressions and the impositives and commissives of tact and generosity maxims under the perspective of the politeness principle. Data for this study were gathered from April 2019 to August 2020 through electronic observation of 24 cases sent by s to h’s personal phone number at different times and dates. Descriptive analysis was applied to understand the contents of SMS. The results of the research were corroborated with a few dimensions of information that the SMS texts promised money ranging from Rp. 100 to 175 millions. The web page addresses were fake and the senders’ names were not written. In case of person deixis, the second person singular “you” appears explicitly and implicitly. All of the web page addresses were considered psychologically spatial deixis and the temporal deixis of time and day exist. The illocutionary goal is not competitive (a), so the politeness becomes a positive character. The SMS texts are convivial (b), meaning that the illocutionary goal coincides with the social goal, for instance greeting and congratulating, but not inviting or thanking. The goal sounds great because it consists of courtesy or politeness, but the linguistic behaviour does not follow such a goal. The SMS threatens domestic politeness, and the unification for life sustainability could be disturbed. The SMS texts present bad implications for politeness in Indonesia and contribute a negative paradigm for national unification sustainability. The study suggests the importance of selection processs capability by the SMS provider in an organizational context.

Keywords: Utterance, SMS, money-enticement, deixis, politeness, unification sustainability

[1] Abdullah, M. (2015). Deixis: A Pragmatics Analysis. Language in India. 15(12), 3-9. http:// Or dec2015/index.html. Retrieved on 23 May 2020.

[2] Alam, I., Khusro, S., Rauf, A., and Zaman, Q. (2014). Conducting Surveys and Data Collection: From Traditional to Mobile and SMS-based Surveys. Pak.j.stat.oper.res. 10(2), 169-187. article/view/758. Retrieved on 12 April 2020.

[3] Antonopoulou, E. and Nikiforidou, K. (2002). Deictic Motion and the Adoption of Perspective in Greek. Pragmatics. l2(3), 273-295. DOI: 10.1075/prag.12.3.02ant. content/journals/10.1075/prag.12.3.02ant. Retrieved oin 8 November 2019.

[4] Basso, E. B. (2008). Epistemic Deixis in Kalapalo. Pragmatics 18(2), 215-252. Doi: 10.1075/Prag.18.2.03bas. 10.1075/ prag.18.2.03bas. Retrieved on 13 November 2019.

[5] Breuilly, J. and Speirs, R. (No Year). The Concept of National Unification. In R. Speirs et al. (eds.). (2005). Germany’s Two Unifications. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 9780230518520_1. DOI: Retrieved on 18 December 2019.

[6] Chaka, C., Mphahlele, M. L., and Mann, C. C. (2015). The structure and features of the SMS language used in the written work of Communication English I Students at a University in South Africa. Reading & Writing. 6(1), 1-9. 6/1/EJC179714. Retrieved in 4 January 2020.

[7] Cho, S. S., Gooder, B., and Song, M. (2019). Size Efficient Messaging System (SEMS) Using Probabilistic Data Structures. 2019. IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). Brookings, SD, USA. 20-22 May 2019. 33494520. Retrieved on March 10, 2020.

[8] Cohen, L. and Manion, L. (1980). Research Methods in Education. 3rd Ed. New York: Routledge.

[9] Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd Ed. Los Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore: Sage Publications, Inc.

[10] Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th Ed. Los Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore: Sage Publications, Inc.

[11] Deledalle, G. (ed.). (1989). Semiotics and Pragmatics: Proceedings of the Perpignan Symposium on Semiotics and Pragmatics. Perpignan, 17 to 19 November, 1983. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Deledalle,+G.+(ed.).+(1989).+Semiotics+and+Pragmatics.+In+Foundations+of+Pragm atics+18+Proceedings+of+the+Perpignan+Symposium.+&ots=fNEwqNgJBj&sig=yjbfLB1y0-NwChbBkp _3nbfXDX0&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved in 18 June 2020.

[12] Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2008). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Edisi Keempat. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. [

13] Emas, R. (2015). The Concept of Sustainable Development: Definition and Defining Principles. Brief for GSDR. Unpublished. 1-3. R_2015_SD_concept_definiton_rev.pdf?1457781844=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+f ilename%3DThe_Concept_of_Sustainable_Development_D.pdf&Expires=1610077561&Signature= OMzp-3~1zkY3vP4M6e9O2LzirYoSRlUhqFTejU3PWETNjhOzuSeMcmIbffeacwjntBFjQvMVmcMlLG uf~NS9YGrj441tUnv3i~xxLnnXGiGctkeCSf-9GG5hmrq2ScjsSL3xLOZOCNKch5fQ3-Tkrk3xpqMIZ0P AO6msxfQJ4u1-7SZCvkLyXx-Q3qG62k5rOGwjtUWuT-V1kw0Z9ik~XI~A7bF5GQB61QG2gl1rSi1rV6b LK99BmTDS9Q9P~2oxq7vjapZBm70pPZ4oCqweOD2cIqMqSWUeKpqtkAfFADWKCbIarNPtO0Vdu QpCQCf0b~Q-2zfndyBxjsQ7M5fh4w__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA. Retrieved on 10 December 2019.

[14] Grenoble, L. (1995). Spatial Configurations, Deixis and Apartment Descriptions in Russian. Pragmatics 5(3), 365-385. DOI: 10.1075/prag.5.3.04gre. prag.5.3.04gre. Retrieved on 10 December 2019.

[15] Gu, Y. (1990). Politeness Phenomena in Modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics. 14. 237-257. http: // Retrieved on 15 February 2019.

[16] Haryono, H., Lelono, B., and Kholifah, A. N. (2018). Typography, Morphology, and Syntax Characteristics of Texting. Lingua Cultura. 12(2), 179-185. id/index.php/Lingua/article/view/3976. Retrieved on 20 May, 2019.

[17] Haverkate, H. (1992). Deictic Categories as Mitigating Devices. Pragmatics. 2(4), 505-522. DOI: 10.1075/prag.2.4.03hav. Retrieved in 17 September 2019.

[18] Kasper, G. and Blum-Kulka, S. (1993). Interlanguage Pragmatics. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kasper,+G.+and+Blum-Kulka,+S.+(1993).+Interlanguage+Pragmatics.+&ots=UfoQUZRuOT&sig= mjifmxKOQ65-1lzlU4oKk__vn4U&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Kasper{%}2C{%}20G. {%}20and{%}20Blum-Kulka{%}2C{%}20S.{%}20(1993).{%}20Interlanguage{%}20Pragmatics.&f=false. Retrieved in 13 March 2019.

[19] Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge. org/highereducation/books/6D0011901AE9E92CBC1F5F21D7C598C3. Retrieved in 19 May 2019.

[20] Leech, G. N. (1963). Principles of Pragmatics. London and New York: Longman. id/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2uWXCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Leech,+G.+N.+(1963).+Principles+of+ Pragmatics&ots=KBkRteDrUh&sig=CTK_2t8zkeg7Qull3PP2kteFfoA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f= false. Retrieved in 12 June 2019.

[21] Leech, G. (2005). Politeness: Is There an East-West Devide? Journal of Foreign Languages. No. 6, 1-30. Retrieved in 12 December 2018.

[22] Lorello, T. J. and Hart, R. D. (2001). Short Message Service Notification Forwarded Between Multiple Short Message Service Center. U.S. Patent Mar. 27, 2001 Sheet 1 of 9 US 6,208,870 B1. https: // Retrieved on 28 April 2020.

[23] Maggay, J. G., (2019). InquiText: SMS-Based Auto-Reply Inquiry System for Grades and Accounts. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 7(2), 90-97. 2019/07/APJMR-2019. Pdf. Retrieved in 26 January 2019.

[24] Maggay, J. (2019). Usability Evaluation of SMS-Based System: Basis for Systems Development. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM). 13(9), 113- 125. DOI: 10.3991/ijim.v13i09.10918. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/335649623 or file:///D:/Downloads/paper_216569.pdf. Retrieved in 13 April 2020.

[25] Meibauer, J. and Steibach, M. (2011). Experimental Pragmatics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

[26] Naughton, D. (2014). A Review of Text Messaging (SMS) as a Communication Tool for Higher Education. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. 5(5). 8183&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Retrieved in 9 February 2020.

[27] Ruhi, S. (2006). Politeness in Compliment Responses: A Perspective from Naturally Occurring Exchanges in Turkish. Pragmatics. 16(1), 43-101. DOI: 10.1075/prag.16.1.03ruh. https://www.jbe-platform. com/content/journals/ 10.1075/prag.16.1.03ruh. Retrieved on 10 December 2019.

[28] Shaw, R. and Hayden Bosworth, H. (2012). Short Message Service (SMS) Text Messaging as an Intervention Medium for Weight Loss: A literature Review. Health Informatics J. 18(4): 235–250. DOI: 10.1177/1460458212442422. 1460458212442422. Retrieved on 5 November 2019.

[29] Solomon, L. and Phiri, J. (2017). Enhancing the Administration of National Examinations using Mobile Cloud Technologies: A Case of Malawi National Examinations Board. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. 8(9), 294-305. 8&issue=9&code=IJACSA. Retrieved in 23 November 2019.

[30] Susanto, T. D. and Goodwin, R. (2006). Opportunity and Overview of SMS-Based E-Government in Developing Countries. WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies. 36, 255- 264. DOI: 10.2495/IS060251. Retrieved on 23 May 2020.

[31] Taylor, A. S. and Vincent, J. (no year). A SMS History. Mobile world: Past, present and future. 75-91. Retrieved in 19 July 2020.

[32] Wierzbicka, A. (2003). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. 2nd ed. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved on 12 November 2019.

[33] Yengin, I., and Karahoca, A. (2015). Educational Potentials of SMS Technology. In Zheng Yan. Encyclopedia of Mobile Phone Behavior. Hershey: IGI Global. educational-potentials-of-sms-technology/130226. Retrieved on 25 January 2020.

[34] Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[35] Zienkowski, J., Ostman, J. O., and Verschueren (eds.). (2011). Discursive Pragmatics. Volume 8. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.,+J.,+Ostman,+J. +O.,+and+Verschueren+(eds.).+(2011).+Discursive+Pragmatics.+Volume+8.+&ots=V1t3Hr8QMY&sig= DGuiHnHlMYMYJfIxrzu692Zjx7g&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved in 12 August 2019.

[36] Zurovac, D., Sudoi, R. K., Akhwale, W. S., Ndiritu, M., Hammer, D. H., Rowe, A. K., and Snow, R. W. (2011). The Effect of Mobile Phone Text-Message Reminders on Kenyan Health Workers’ Adherence to Malaria Treatment Guidelines: A Cluster Randomised Trial. The Lancet. 378(9793), 795–803. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60783-6. article/pii/ S0140673611607836. Retrieved on 16 July 2029.