Polygamy As a Form of Marriage: Based on Sociological Research
Polygamy as a form of marriage is, as a rule, more common in Arab and Muslim countries than in Russia. The desire of modern Russian men to commit polygamy can be interpreted as a consequence of the improvement in their material condition, which makes possible to support two or more wives and their children, while at the same time not taking into consideration the moral side of the issue that it is necessary to devote the same amount of time to all wives, to solve family problems if necessary, and to raise children. Despite the fact that the Quran says that it is better to take divorced and single mothers as the second and the third wives to support them, modern men are not guided by moral and religious principles, but rather by the desire to have a younger wife. This article presents the results of sociological research, both quantitative and qualitative. As a quantitative study, we conducted a pilot survey of Muslim women in the Republic of Tatarstan, which revealed some trends in the socialization of Muslims in Russian society. Further, a number of qualitative studies were conducted in order to study the Muslim environment in more depth: in-depth interviews with Russian Muslim women, as well as semi-structured interviews with imams of mosques. The results of the research made it possible to create a typology of polygamous families: — a Man with a good financial situation, in some cases having a high status in society, which can allow him to support several wives and their children, creates a marriage with several wives. In this type, family members are not always practicing Muslims, most often they are ethnic Muslims. — Male migrants, more often coming from CIS countries, less often from Arab countries, leave their wives and children, come to work in Russia and create new families. However, for such wives from Russia, there is no guarantee that the husband will not leave for his homeland and will not return. — A man who belongs to non-traditional religious movements, where it is possible without observing the necessary conditions to conduct the nikah rite with a woman from the same ”group” that shares his ”religious” views, including without notification, permission of the first wife. More often, this is a man who does not have the financial ability to support several wives.
Keywords: polygamy, polygamous family, Muslim women, Muslim, Islam
 Abdel Rahim Omran (1992) Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam. London: Routledge, p. 308.
 Barlas, A. (2008). Engaging Islamic Feminism: Provincializing Feminism as a Master Narrative. Islamic Feminism: Current Perspectives. Anitta Kynsilehto (ed.), Tampere Peace Research Institute Occasional Paper, number 96, pp. 15-24.
 Consultant.ru. (1995, December). Retrieved September 16, 2019 from http://www.consultant.ru/ document/cons_doc_LAW_8982/eff2fdb151dc56cf74a0a70b3d bef1475c08d5c0/#dst100059.
 GKS.ru. (2019, August). Retrieved November 21, 2019 from https://www.gks.ru/folder/12781.
 Hapchaev, S. T. (2019). Polygamy in Muslim law: a Comparative Historical Analysis. News of Higher Education Institutions. Volga Region. Social Sciences, vol. 2, issue 50, pp. 71-85.
 Interfax.ru. (2019, September) Retrieved November 14, 2019 from https://www.interfax.ru/russia/677573.
 Kalimullina, A. (2009). Tatar Muslim Metric Books in the Collections of the National Archives of the Republic of Tatarstan. East Archive, vol. 19, pp. 90-92.
 Kasymova, S. R. (2006). Tajik Society: Tradition and Practice of Polygamy. Bulletin of Eurasia, vol. 4, pp. 97-115.
 Kommersant.ru. (2019, September). Retrieved November 21, 2019 from https://www.kommersant.ru/ doc/4087187.
 Irina, K. and Elkina, O. (2014). Life and Problems of Women in the North Caucasus. Results of the Study made in 2014. Retrieved https://ru.boell.org/sites/default/files/uploads/2015/08/ life_of_women_nc_eng.pdf.
 Lurie, S. V. (2016). Modern Experience of Polygamous Families among Russian Muslims: A Narrative Analysis. Petersburg Sociology Today, vol. 7, pp. 243-277.
 Mufti Ravil Gainutdin: People in Russia are more Tolerant. Retrieved November 25, 2019 from https: //www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=109&v=cd91a2fU1f4&feature=emb_logo
 Mukhametzaripov, I. A. (2015). Sharia in the Legal System of the Modern Secular State: Ideology or Necessity? Muslim World, vol. 3, pp. 7-27.
 Daoud, N., et al. (2014). Polygamy and poor mental health among Arab Bedouin women: do socioeconomic position and social support matter? Ethnicity & Health, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 385-405.
 Radjabov, O. R. and Mirimova, A. A. (2019). Objective and Subjective Factors of the Appearance of Polygamy in Society. Social and Humanitarian Knowledge, vol. 5, pp. 104-108.
 RIA 2019. Mufti of Moscow proposed to legalize polygamy in Russia. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from https://ria.ru/20190925/1559123457.html.
 Saaduev, R., et al. (2007). Love and Sex in Islam: A Collection of Articles and Fatwas (3rd ed.). Moscow: Ansar, p. 304.
 Sharipova, M. (2002). Some Forms of Gender Stereotypes Common in Tajikistan. Abstract Collection of the Scientific Information and Patent Center of the Republic of Tatarstan, vol. 1, issue 16(1450), p. 17.
 Shidfar, B. Y. (2012). Sura An-Nisa, 129. (Women). Quran. The Holy Qur’an, Mardzhani. Moscow, pp. 608.
 Zagirova, E. M. (2017). Traditions and Innovations in the Institutional Space of the Dagestan Family. Bulletin of the Saratov University New series. Series Sociology. Political science, vol. 3, pp. 298-303.