Exhumation: Past and Present
The modernization of a society leads to changes in the society’s attitude towards funeral practices. This article is devoted to the study of socio-cultural, historical, religious and political-legal aspects of the exhumation phenomenon. Thanatosociological, historical, biographical, religious studies, legal and political approaches form the methodological basis of the study, which made it possible to identify features of exhumation in the past and present. The study has fixed that modern experts criticize the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) for the fact that the return to church life of already known relics and the inclusion of new shrines in it do not always meet the canonical requirements. As a result, gaining and ‘traffic’ of the last decades relics “with their historical unreliability, political background and clerical ambitions” causes direct damage to the spiritual life of a society. It has been established that exhumation, on the one hand, ‘compensates’ for losses in family relationships, gives impetus to the development of religious life, and solves specific problems of scientific research and investigative actions. On the other hand, sometimes exhumation is carried out for opportunistic, political, mercenary or criminal purposes thus, the problem of ensuring the peace of the buried remains very relevant.
Keywords: funereal, cemetery, exhumation, reburial, relics
 Barabanov, N. D. (1998). From Gilu to Ghouls. Demonology and parish Orthodoxy in Byzantium. In N. D. Drums, (Ed.). Medieval Orthodoxy. From parish to patriarchy. Volgograd, Russia, vol. 2, p. 83–97.
 Barmina, N. I. (2001). Elements of pagan funeral rites in the necropolis of the Mangup basilica. In: Culture and art of non-Greek Christians. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 6–9.
 Belyaev, L. A. (2000). Christian Antiquities: An Introduction to Comparative Study. 2nd ed., Aletheia, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 576.
 Berdinsky, V. A. (2005). History of treasure hunting in Russia. Moscow, Russia: Zakharov, p. 238.
 Bulgakov, S. N. (1997). Works on sociology and theology. Science, vol. 2, p. 827.
 Dashevskaya, O. D. (1994). On the ruin of Greek and Scythian graves in antiquity. Russian archeology, vol. 4, pp. 79–84.
 Demichev, A. V. (1997). Discourses of Death: An Introduction to Philosophical Tanatology. St. Petersburg, Russia: Inappress, p. 144.
 Duby, J. (1994). Europe in the Middle Ages. Smolensk, Russia: Polygram, p. 316.
 Ilyashenko, A. N. and Lozovsky, D. N. (2017). Actual issues of the production of exhumation in criminal proceedings. Society and law, vol. 1, issue 59, pp. 87–91.
 Korpusova, V. N. (1983). Golden Necropolis (On the Ethnocultural History of the European Bosporus). Kiev, Ukraine: Naukova Dumka, p. 184.
 Makarov, N. A. (2004). Robbery excavations as a factor in the destruction of the archaeological heritage of Russia. Institute of Archeology RAS, Moscow, Russia, p. 41.
 Men, A. (1991). Orthodox worship. Sacrament, Word and image. Slovo, Moscow, Russia, p. 190.
 Musin, A. E. (2006). Glaring stones. The Russian Church and the cultural heritage of Russia at the turn of the century. Petersburg Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 371.
 Illegal excavations and the archaeological heritage of Russia (Materials of the ”round table”). (2002). Russian archeology, vol. 4, pp. 70–89.
 Petrova, M. S. (2004). Einhard and his holy dead. Middle Ages. Science, vol. 65, pp. 289–295.
 Requiem.ru. (2020). Thus began the funeral. Retrieved February 12, 2020 from http://www.requiem.ru/ history/begin/
 Ryazantsev, S. V. (1994). Tanatology (the doctrine of death). East European Institute of Psychoanalysis, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 380.
 Skorobogatov, A. V. and Makarova, N. I. (2004). “Great-grandfather’s great-grandson”: the image of Peter I in the philosophy of power of Emperor Paul I. Bulletin of the RUDN University. Russian History, vol. 3, pp. 18–24.
 Sorokin, P. A. (1992). Man. Civilization. Society. Moscow, Russia: Politizdat, p. 543.
 Warner, W. (2000). The Living and the Dead. University Book, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 672.
 Worthman, R. S. (2002). Power scenarios: Myths and Ceremonies of the Russian monarchy. Moscow: OGI, vol. 1. p. 606.
 Urry, J. (2012). Mobility. Moscow: Praxis, p. 576.
 Flerov, V. S. (1993). Funeral rites in the north of the Khazar Khaganate. Volgograd: Peremena, p. 146.
 Thucydides, (1999). History. Russia: Science, p. 736.
 Shore, G. V. (2002). About the death of a person (introduction to thanatology). St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg State Medical University, p. 272.
 Safonov, M. M. (1995). Second funeral of Peter III as a Masonic ritual. Retrieved February 12, 2020 from http://anthropology.ru/ru/text/safonov-mm/vtorichnye-pohorony-petra-iii-kak-masonskiy-ritual
 Kammen, M. (2010). Digging Up the Dead: A History of Notable American Reburials. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press, p. 272.
 Kenworthy, T. E. (2002). The Road Home: Repatriating Chinese Emigrants After Death. New Zealand Geographer, vol. 58, issue 1, pp. 2–13.
 Kerl, M. C. (1989). Endings. A Sociology of Death and Dying. Newyork, USA: Oxford univ. press, p. 521.