Stop Academic Procrastination During Covid 19: Academic Procrastination Reduces Subjective Well-Being
Happiness is the life goal of everyone, including students. But in fact, some student behavior is not in line with the effort to get happiness. Academic Procrastination is one of them. The Covid-19 pandemic, which requires learning to be carried out online, appears to have increased academic procrastination, although there is no definite data about it. This study aims to determine the impact of academic procrastination on Subjective Well-Being. The design of this research is literature review. Researchers conducted a literature search regarding the academic procrastination and subjective well-being through Google Scholar and ScienceDirect. Hermeneutic techniques are used to analyze the literature according to the research objectives. The literature review results show that academic procrastination reduces Subjective Well-Being. The results of this literature review can be a warning to students not to do academic procrastination.
Keywords: Academic procrastination; Subjective well-being; Academic Procrastination During Covid-19
 Aghababaei, N. (2018). The Relations among Religiosity, Subjective Well-being, and Attitudes towards Science. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 12(2), 65–69.
 Akram, A., Fu, C., Li, Y., Javed, M. Y., Lin, R., Jiang, Y., & Tang, Y. (2019). Predicting Students’ Academic Procrastination in Blended Learning Course Using Homework Submission Data. IEEE Access, 7, 102487–102498. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2019.2930867
 Ardelt, M., & Jeste, D. V. (2018). Wisdom and hard times: The ameliorating effect of wisdom on the negative association between adverse life events and well-being. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 73(8), 1374–1383.
 Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
 Assur, A. M. (2003). The relationship of academic procrastination to affective and cognitive components of subjective well-being. (Doctoral dissertation, ProQuest Information & Learning).
 Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2016). Procrastination, self-regulation failure, academic life satisfaction, and affective well-being: Underregulation or misregulation form. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 31(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-015-0266-5
 De Neve, J. E., Ward, G., De Keulenaer, F., Van Landeghem, B., Kavetsos, G., & Norton, M. I. (2018). The asymmetric experience of positive and negative economic growth: Global evidence using subjective well-being data. Review of Economics and Statistics, 100(2), 362–375.
 Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542.
 Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2013). Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 267.
 Ergene, Ö., & Türk Kurtça, T. (2020). Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Levels of Academic Procrastination and Online Learning Readiness. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 52–66. https://doi.org/10.17220/mojet.2020.04.006
 Ferrari, J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating: The no-regrets guide to getting it done. New York: Wiley.
 Froh, J. J., Bono, G., & Emmons, R. A. (2010). Being grateful is beyond good manners: Gratitude and motivation to contribute to society among early adolescents. Motivation Emotion, 34, 144–157.
 Galiani, S., Gertler, P. J., & Undurraga, R. (2018). The half-life of happiness: Hedonic adaptation in the subjective well-being of poor slum dwellers to the satisfaction of basic housing needs. Journal of the European Economic Association, 16(4), 1189–1233.
 Goodman, F. R., Disabato, D. J., Kashdan, T. B., & Kauffman, S. B. (2018). Measuring well-being: A comparison of subjective well-being and PERMA. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 321–332.
 Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841–861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212- 012- 0143- 4
 Heale, R., & Forbes, D. (2013). Understanding triangulation in research. Evid Based Nurs, 16(4), 98. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb- 2013- 101494
 Huda, M. J. N. (2015). Perbandingan Prokrastinasi Akademik Menurut Pilahan Jenis Kelamin Di Uin Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta. 8(2), 423–438.
 Jia, J., Jiang, Q., & Lin, X. H. (2020). Academic anxiety and self-handicapping among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A moderated mediation model. Research Square, 1–22.
 Kaftan, O. J., & Freund, A. M. (2018). The Way is the Goal: The Role of Goal Focus for Successful Goal Pursuit and Subjective Well-Being. In: Diener, E; Oishi, S; Tay, L. Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers, online.
 Kemenkes.(2020).Pedomanpencegahandanpengendaliancoronavirusdisease(COVID-19).Retrieved from https://covid19.go.id/p/protokol/pedoman-pencegahan-dan-pengendalian-coronavirus-disease- covid- 19- revisi- ke- 5
 Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015. 02.038
 Klingsieck, K. B. (2013). Procrastination in Different Life-Domains: Is Procrastination Domain Specific? Current Psychology, 32(2), 175–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144 013-9171-8
 Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014). Delay or procrastination—A comparison of self-report and behavioral measures of procrastination and their impact on affective well being. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 75–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.050
 Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2016). It’s in the means: Process focus helps against procrastination in the academic context. Motivation and Emotion, 40(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-016-9541-2
 Kushlev, K., Heintzelman, S. J., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2018). The declining marginal utility of social time for subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 74, 124–140.
 Lai, Y. C., & Lin, W. Q. (2018). Relations among Perceived Social Support, Subjective Well-being and Academic Procrastination of Rural Left-behind Children. Journal of Shaanxi Xueqian Normal University, 5(6).
 Lampropoulou, A. (2018). Personality, school, and family: What is their role in adolescents’ subjective well-being. Journal of Adolescence, 67, 12–21.
 Larkin, M., Eatough, V., & Osborn, M. (2011). Interpretative phenomenological analysis and embodied, active, situated cognition. Theory & Psychology, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354310377544
 Liu,H.H.,Peng,F.,Zeng,X.H.,Zhao,J.B.,&Zhang,X.Y.(2019).Authoritarianpersonalityandsubjective well-being in Chinese college students: The moderation effect of the organizational culture context. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 79–83.
 Lucas,R.E.,&Diener,E.(2015).Personalityandsubjectivewell-being:Currentissuesandcontroversies. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Vol. 4. Personality processes and individual differences (p. 577–599). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14343-026
 Mogilner, C., Whillans, A., & Norton, M. I. (2018). Time, money, and subjective well-being. Handbook of Well-Being. Noba Scholar Handbook series: Subjective well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF publishers. Retrieved from nobascholar. com.
 Myers, D. G. (2004). Social Psychology. New York. Mc Graw-Hill.
 Ningtyas, L. K. S., Tentama, F., & Situmorang, N. Z. (2018). Gambaran Subjective Well-Being Pada Perempuan Lanjut Usia. The 8th University Research Colloqium 2018” Pengembangan Sumber Daya Menuju Masyarakat Madani Berkearifan Lokal”. Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.
 Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2011). Personality and happiness: Predicting the experience of subjective well- being. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences, 699 717. USA. A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication.
 Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford University Press.
 Prastuti, E. (2019). Model kesejahteraan subjektif ibu dewasa muda ditinjau dari regulasi emosi, mindfulness dan rasa syukur. Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Airlangga.
 Rosali, E. S., Pendidikan, J., & Universitas, G. (2020). Aktifitas Pembelajaran Daring Pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 Di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi Universitas Siliwangi Tasikmalaya. Geography Science Education Journal (GEOSEE, 1(1), 21–30.
 Ruch,W.,Wagner,L.,&Heintz,S.(2018).Humor,thePENmodelofpersonality,andsubjectivewell-being: Support for differential relationships with eight comic styles. RISU, 1(1), 31–44.
 Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081. https://doi.org/doi:http: //dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022- 3522.214.171.1249
 Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.
 Seligman, M. (2018). PERMA and the building blocks of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 333–335.
 Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128–145.
 Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51–58.
 Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic Procrastination: Psychological Antecedents Revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12173
 Tibbett, T. P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03. 014
 Tuckman,B.W.(1991).Thedevelopmentandconcurrentvalidityoftheprocrastinationscale.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 473–480.
 WHO. (2020). Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Retrieved from https: //www.who.int/news/item/30- 01- 2020- statement- on- the- second- meeting- of- the- international- health- regulations- (2005)- emergency- committee- regarding- the- outbreak- of- novel- coronavirus- (2019- ncov)
 Zacks, S., & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117–130. https://doi.org/10. 1080/10852352.2016.1198154