Simplified Social Mediated Crisis Communication Model during Crisis in Indonesia: A Case Study on How Customers of Indonesia Commuter Line Train Company Seek Information on a Train Delay Due to the Double Track Trial on April 12, 2019
This study explores how audiences seek information from internet and social media platforms, and considers what factors affect social media use during a crisis. The paper is based on research conducted via a survey involving 162 active followers selected from the 875,200 followers of the Indonesia Train Company: PT Kereta Api Commuter Line official Twitter account (Info Commuter Line @CommuterLine). The study proposes the Simplified Social Mediated Crisis Communication Model (SSMCC) as a variation on the original Social-Mediated Crisis Communication (SMCC) Model by Jin & Liu (2010). This variation is based on the argument that during a crisis, audiences located nearby typically rely on social media (usually accessed via a mobile phone) rather than a traditional media outlet when seeking information. This study concludes that some of the themes related to the use of social media to search for information during a crisis, and word of mouth (WOM) communication, are present in the Social-Mediated Crisis Communication (SMCC) communication model. This study also discusses the differences between the original SMCC model and the Simplified Social-Mediated Crisis Communication model proposed by the researcher. There was no evidence of an inactive social media user’s influence on information retrieval during a crisis; in addition, there is no role of traditional media as a source of information retrieval during a crisis. This research contributes to developing scientific knowledge and practices in Indonesia.
Keywords: crisis communication, social media, information search, simplified social mediated crisis communication model, social media followers
 Austin, L., Liu, B. F. and Jin, Y. (2012). How Audiences Seek Out Crisis Information: Exploring the SocialMediated Crisis Communication Model. Journal of Applied Communication Research, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 207-188.
 Benoit, W. L. (2004). Image Restoration Discourse and Crisis Communication. In D. P. Millar and R. L. Heath (Eds.), Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication. Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 263-280.
 Coombs, T. W. (2006). The Protective Powers of Crisis Response Strategies: Managing Reputational Assets During a Crisis. Journal of Promotion Management, vol. 12, issue 4-3, pp. 260-241.
 Bradford, J. L. and Garrett, D. E. (1995). The Effectiveness of Corporate Communicative Responses to Accusations of Unethical Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 14, issue 11, pp. 892-875.
 Veil, S. R., Sellnow, T. L. and Petrun, E. L. (2012). Hoaxes and the Paradoxical Restoring Legitimacy: Dominos Response to Its YouTube Crisis. Management Communication Quarterly, vol. 26, issue 2, pp. 345-322.
 Schwarz, A. (2012). How Publics use Social Media to Respond to Blame Games in Crisis Communication: The Love Parade tragedy in Duisburg 2010. Public Relations Review, vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 437-430.
 Cho, S. and Cameron, G. T. (2006). Public Nudity on Cell Phones: Managing Conflict in Crisis Situation. Public Relations Review, vol. 32, issue 2, pp. 199-201.\
 Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A Case Study of Social Media and Image Repair Tactics. Public Relations Review, vol. 37, issue 4, pp. 405-414.
 Kim, S. and Liu, B. F. (2012). Are All Crises Opportunities? A Comparison of How Corporate and Government Organizations Responded to the 2009 Flu Pandemic. Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 69-85.
 Brown, N. A. and Billings, A. C. (2013). Sports Fans as Crisis Communicators on Social Media Websites. Public Relations Review, vol 39, issue 1, pp. 74-81.
 Stephens, K. K. and Malone, P. C. (2009). If the Organizations Won’t Give Us Information: The Use of Multiple New Media for Crisis Technical Translation and Dialogue. Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 229-239.
 Austin, L. and Jin, Y. (2018). Social Media and Crisis Communication. New York: Routledge.
 Huang, Y. H. and Su, S. H. (2009). Determinants of Consistent, Timely, and Active Responses in Corporate Crises. Public Relations Review, vol. 35, issue 1, pp. 7-17.
 Greer, C. F. and Moreland, K. D. (2003). United Airlines and American Airlines online Crisis Communication following the September 11 Terrorist Attacks. Public Relations Review, vol. 29, issue 4, pp. 427-441.
 Gilpin, D. (2010). Organizational Image Construction in a Fragmented Online Media Environment. Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 265-287.
 Macias, W., Hilyard, K. and Freimuth, V. (2009). Blog Functions as Risk and Crisis Communication During Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. 15-31.
 Yang, S. U., Kang, M. and Johnson, P. (2010). Effects of Narratives, Openness to Dialogic Communication, and Credibility on Engagement in Crisis Communication Through Organizational Blogs. Communication Research, vol. 37, issue 4, pp. 473-497.
 Jin, Y. and Liu, B. F. (2010). The Blog-Mediated Crisis Communication Model: Recommendations for Responding to Influential External Blogs. Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 22, issue 4, pp. 429-455.
 Procopio, C. H. and Procopio, S. T. (2007). Do You Know What it Means to Miss New Orleans? Internet Communication, Geographic Community, and Social. Journal of Applied Communication Research, vol. 35, issue 1, pp. 67-87.
 Pew, I. A. (2006). Blogger Callback Survey. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org.
 Bucher, H. J. (2002). Crisis Communication and the Internet: Risk and Trust in a Global Media. First Monday, vol. 7, issue 4.
 Sutton, J., Palen, L. and Shklovski, I. (2008). Backchannels on the Front Lines: Emergent Uses of Social Media in the 2007 Southern California Wildfires. In F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference. Washington, DC.
 Choi, Y. and Lin, Y. H. (2009). Consumer Responses to Mattel Product Recalls Posted on Online Bulletin Boards: Exploring Two Types of Emotion. Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 198-207.
 Palen, L. (2008). Online Social Media in Crisis Events. Education Quarterly, vol. 3, pp. 76-78.
 Chi, H.-H. (2011). Interactive Digital Advertising vs. Virtual Brand Community Exploratory Study of User Motivation and Social Media Marketing Responses in Taiwan. Journal of Interactive Advertising, vol. 12, issue 1, pp. 44-61.
 Liu, Y. and Shrum, L. J. (2002). What is Interactivity and is it Always Such a Good Thing? Implications of Definition, Person, and Situation for the Influence of Interactivity on Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, vol. 31, issue 4, pp. 53-64.
 Wright, D. K. and Hinson, M. D. (2009). An Updated Look at the Impact of Social Media on Public Relations Practice. Public Relations Journal, vol. 3, issue 2.
 Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research Design Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. California: SAGE Publications.