Development of a Student Bullying Scale Using the Rasch Model
Student bullying scales have been developed based on Western cultures, however these are not necessarily applicable to non-Western cultures, and there is a need for a scale to measure bullying behaviours that is adaptable to individual national cultures. This would not only be useful for students undergoing bullying, but also useful from the perpetrator’s side. The Rasch model can be used in this fashion, and this study seeks to develop a student bullying scale by applying the psychometric properties of the Rasch model. The dimensions of the bullying scale consisted of power imbalance, intent to harm, and cyberbullying, and the bullying indicators are defined as verbal, physical, visual, and relational. A total of 1200 public junior high school students in Bogor Regency took part in the study divided of 500 students in phase 1 and 700 students in phase II. The study concludes that the proposed instrument to evaluate bullying has significant validity and reliability in both phase 1 and phase 2.
Keywords: rasch model, bullying scale, validity and reliabilty
 Hasanah, U., Raharjo, S. T. and Kekerasan, S. P. Penanganan kekerasan anak berbasis masyarakat.
 Knowler, C. and Frederickson, N. (2013). Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour. Educ. Psychol., vol. 33, issue 7, pp. 862–883.
 Jan, A. and Husain, S. (2015). Bullying in Elementary Schools: Its Causes and Effects on Students. J. Educ. Pract., vol. 6, issue 19, pp. 43–57.
 Çobanoğlu, F., Ayvaz-Tuncel, Z. and Ordu, A. (2018). Child-friendly Schools: An Assessment of Secondary Schools. Univers. J. Educ. Res., vol. 6, issue 3, pp. 466–477.
 Lam, L., T., Y., Li. (2013). The Validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for Adolescents. Comput. Human Behav., vol. 29, issue 1, pp. 3–7.
 Tarshis, T., P. and Huffman, L. C. (2007). Psychometric Properties of the Peer Interactions in Primary School (PIPS) Questionnaire. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 125–132.
 S. C. L. L., R. V. (2016). Educational Leadership Effectiveness: A Rasch Analysis. J. Educ. Adm., vol. 54, issue 3, pp. 305–339.
 Osteen, P. (2010). An Introduction to Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory to Assess Latent Factor Structure. J. Soc. Social Work Res., vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 66–82.
 Abdullah, N. and Lim, B. K. (2012). Parallel Circuit Conceptual Understanding Test (PCCUT). Presented at International Conference on University and Teaching.
 Linacre. (2009). A Users Guide to Winsteps Ministeps Rasch-Model Computer Program. Chicago: Winstep.com.
 Cheng, Y. and Chen, L. (2011). Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach. no. June 2014.
 Lee, J., Abell, N. and Holmes, J. L. (2017). Validation of Measures of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization in Emerging Adulthood, vol. 27, issue 4, pp. 456–467.
 Gonçalves, F. G., et al. (2016). Construct Validity and Reliability of Olweus Bully/ Victim Questionnaire - Brazilian version. Psicol. Reflex. e Crit., vol. 29, issue 1.
 Sullivan, K., Clearly, M. and Sullivan, G. (2005). Bullying in Secondary School, What it Looks Like and How To Manage It. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
 Smith, K. S. (2014). Understanding School Bullying. London: Sage.
 Bradshaw, C. P. and Johnson, R. M. (2011). The Social Context of Bullying and Peer Victimization: An Introduction to the Special Issue. J. Sch. Violence, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 107–114.
 Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E. and Gresham, R. M. (2004). Antisocial Behavior in School: Evidence-Based Practices. Belmont USA: Wadsworth.
 Parson, L. (2009). Bullied Teacher Bullied Student, Guru dan Siswa yang Terintimidasi Mengenali Budaya Kekerasan di Sekolah Anda dan Mengatasinya. Jakarta: Grasindo.
 Hinduja, S. and Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization. Deviant Behav., vol. 29, issue 2, pp. 129–156.
 Sakellariou, T., Carroll, A. and Houghton, S. (2012). Rates of Cyber Victimization and Bullying Among Male Australian Primary and High School Students. Sch. Psychol. Int., vol. 33, issue 5, pp. 533–549.
 Kowalski, R. M., et al. (2014). Bullying in the Digital Age: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Cyberbullying Research among Youth. Psychol. Bull., vol. 140, issue 4, pp. 1073–1137.
 Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, the Bulled, and the Bystander. New York: Harper Collins.