Knowledge-Sharing Enablers and Barriers in Research Centers: A Literature Review
The purpose of the study is to explore the enablers and barriers of knowledge-sharing and consider how knowledge-sharing is implemented by research centers. The literature review covers journals which are indexed (Scopus, ProQuest, and Thomson Reuters) and specialized in knowledge-sharing in research centers. The papers could be easily explored using the key search terms via search engines such as Google Scholar, Emerald Insight, and ProQuest. The review process included the studies from 1994 to 2018. Key search terms include “knowledge management”, “knowledge sharing”, “knowledge sharing enablers and barriers”, and “research centers” to reduce interpretation bias. Individual enabler factors supporting knowledge-sharing consist of social relations and networks, physical proximity to colleagues, a ‘no stupid questions’ culture, monetary rewards, trust, openness in communication, interactive communication, and intrinsic motivational factors. Meanwhile organisational factors include the provision of meeting facilities and informal spaces, appreciation of research by firms and society, diffusion and routine dissemination, simplification of the patenting process, organizational rewards, organizational culture, intention to knowledge sharing methods, extrinsic motivation factors, and others (teamwork, and solid research team). The study was approached from a theoretical perspective and the model proposed can be empirically validated by identifying statements for each dimension. Future research should explore more empirical studies from different countries especially case studies
in research centers.
Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing enablers and barriers, research centers
 Dhabi, A. (2018). Role of Organisational Culture, Leadership and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour on Knowledge Management Amna Ali Al Mansouri*, Sanjay Kumar Singh and Mehmood Khan, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 129–143.
 Hwang, Y., Lin, H. and Shin, D. (2018). Knowledge System Commitment and Knowledge Sharing Intention: The Role of Personal Information Management Motivation. International Journal of Information Management, vol. 39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2017.12.009.
 Kianto, A., et al. (2018). The State of Knowledge Management in Logistics SME: Evidence from Two Finnish Regions the State of Knowledge Management in Logistics Smes: Evidence From Two. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, vol. 00, issue 00, pp. 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 14778238.2018.1488523.
 Kmieciak, R., et al. (2018). Knowledge Management Orientation, Innovativeness, and Competitive Intensity: Evidence from Polish SMEs Intensity: Evidence from Polish SMEs. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, vol. 00, issue 00, pp. 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2018.1514997.
 Law, K. K. and Chan, A. (2017). Managing Knowledge Work in Asia Pacific Contexts: Case Studies of Hong Kong SMEs. Asia Pacific Business Review, vol. 2381(August), pp. 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13602381.2017.1346207.
 Reddy, P. R. and Savinkina, L. A. (2018). Influence of Organisational Culture Dimensions on Knowledge Management Processes in Higher Educational Institutions. Gantasala Venugopal Prabhakar* Swapna Bhargavi Gantasala Sailaja Ankireddy, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 51–71.
 It-management, G. (2018). Knowledge Management Evaluation in a Service Sector: the Case of Central Bank of Iran. Seyed Hossein Siadat, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 72–84.
 Thomas, A. and Paul, J. (2019). Knowledge Transfer and Innovation Through University-Industry Partnership: An Integrated Theoretical View. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, vol. 00, issue 00, pp. 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2018.1552485.
 Nonaka, I. (1994). A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation Dynamic Theory Knowledge of Organizational Creation. Organization Science, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 14–37, https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc. 5.1.14.
 Takeuchi, H. and Umemoto, K. (1996). A Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation. International Journal of Technology Management, Special Issue on Unlearning and Learning for Technological Innovation, vol. 11, pp. 833–845, https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJTM.1996.025472.
 Riege, A. (2005). Three-Dozen Knowledge-Sharing Barriers Managers Must Consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9, issue 3, pp. 18–35, https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270510602746.
 Bock, A. G., et al. (2016). V _ N ∧ Rcci Iv Se a | Sue Behavioral Intention Formation in, vol. 29, issue 1, pp. 87–111.
 Akhavan, P., Rahimi, A. and Mehralian, G. (2013). Developing a Model for Knowledge Sharing in Research Centers. Vine, vol. 43, issue 3, pp. 357–393, https://doi.org/10.1108/VINE-06-2012-0020.
 Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practices Butterworth Heinemann, vol. 4, https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21613.
 . Obermayer-Kovács, N., et al. (2015). Exploring Emotional Intelligence Trait Enablers for Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Synergy and Research, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 7, https://doi.org/10.17951/ijsr.2015.4.1.7.
 Wang, S. and Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge Sharing: A Review and Directions for Future Research. Human Resource Management Review, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 115–131, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009. 10.001.
 Dokhtesmati, M., & Bousari, R. G. (2013). Knowledge Sharing in Iranian Academic Institutions: Meta Analysis Approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 73, pp. 383–387, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.02.065.
 Rosendaal, B., & Bijlsma-Frankema, K. (2015). Knowledge Sharing Within Teams: Enabling and Constraining Factors. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 13, issue 3, pp. 235–247, https://doi.org/10.1057/kmrp.2013.45.
19] Rutten, W., Blaas - Franken, J. and Martin, H. (2016). The Impact of (Low) Trust on Knowledge Sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 199–214, https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-10-2015- 0391.
 Lin, H. F., Lee, H. S. and Wang, D. W. (2009). Evaluation of Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing Based on A Fuzzy AHP Approach. Journal of Information Science, vol. 35, issue 1, pp. 25–44, https: //doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2011.2161363.
 Tan, C. N.-L. and Md. Noor, S. (2013). Knowledge Management Enablers, Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration: A Study of Knowledge Management at Research Universities in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 251–276, https://doi.org/10.1080/19761597. 2013.866314.
 Ondari-Okemwa, E. (2006). Knowledge management in a research organisation: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). Libri, vol. 56, issue 1, pp. 63–72, https://doi.org/10.1515/LIBR.2006.63.
 Lilleoere, A. M., & Hansen, E. H. (2011). Knowledge-Sharing Enablers and Barriers in Pharmaceutical Research and Development. Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. 53–70, https: //doi.org/10.1108/13673271111108693.
 Rego, A., et al. (2009). Barriers and Facilitators to Knowledge Management in University Research Centers: An Exploratory Study. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 7, issue 1, pp. 33–47, https://doi.org/10.2753/JMR1536-5433070103.
 Park, J. and Gabbard, J. L. (2018). Factors that Affect Scientists’ Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Health and Life Sciences Research Communities: Differences Between Explicit and Implicit Knowledge. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.09.017.
 Niedergassel, B. and Leker, J. (2011). Technovation Different Dimensions of Knowledge in Cooperative R & D Projects of University Scientists. Technovation, vol. 31, issue 4, pp. 142–150, https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.technovation.2010.10.005.
 Hung, S., & Lai, H. (2014). Behaviour & Information Technology Knowledge-sharing Motivations affecting R & D Employees Acceptance of Electronic Knowledge Repository, pp. 37–41, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 0144929X.2010.545146.
 Wang, C., Yang, Y. and Management, I. (2007). Personality and Intention to Share Knowledge: An Empirical Study of Scientists in aN R & D, vol. 35, issue 10, pp. 1427–1436.
 Ensign, P. C. and Louis, H. (2010). Knowledge Sharing how Reputation affects Knowledge Sharing among Colleagues, no. 51213.
 Kosonen, M. and Kianto, A. (2007). Applying Wikis to Managing Knowledge - A Socio-technical Approach. Presented at Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management, ECKM, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 541–546, https://doi.org/10.1002/kpm.
 Hartner, A. and Grünfelder, M. (2013). What influences Sharing? The case of Alstom France. Umeå School of Business and Economics, pp. 1–69.
 Khalil, T., et al. (2014). Examining the Social and Technical Factors Influencing School Teachers Knowledge Sharing Intentions in a Teachers Online Professional Community. The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 157–165.
 Gharamah, A. A. and Noordin, M. F. (2017). Impacts of organizational culture, support and IT infrastructure on knowledge management success: An empirical study in Islamic Country, Saudi Arabia. Presented at Proceedings - 6th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World, ICT4M 2016, pp. 19–23, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT4M.2016.16.
 Obermayer-Kovács, N., et al. (2015). Exploring Emotional Intelligence Trait Enablers for Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Synergy and Research, vol. 4, issue 1, p. 7, https: //doi.org/10.17951/ijsr.2015.4.1.7.
 Aris, A. Z. (2013). Requirement for Knowledge Sharing Behavior: A Review of Empirical Findings. Challenges in Encouraging Knowledge Sharing Behavior, vol. 3, issue 6, pp. 517–526.
 Pedersen, T. H. (2017). Analysis of the Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing and its Implication for SMEs Internationalization. Retrieved from https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/ 2460262/PedersenTH.pdf?sequence=1.