During the eleventh and twelfth centuries (AH), or seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (CE), Iraq witnessed the entry of a large group of immigrant tribes from the Arabian Peninsula, moving from Najd and Hail towards Iraq. Iraqi historians called them ‘Shammar’. The tribes entered Iraq in three batches, the first was in 1050 and the second was 1118 and the third was 1206 (AH). The largest of these migrations occurred in 1118, led by Ghanem al-Hassan al-Khawari, and a huge number of immigrants swept through the Iraqi valleys and caused significant anxiety amongst some Iraqi tribes and arousing the anger of the Ottomans. Hassan Pasha, the Ottoman minister of Baghdad, led an army to subdue the immigrant tribes. He crossed the Radwani bridge south of Falluja and eventually met them at their gathering site in the al-Mshahid area near Fallujah. There was a major battle which led to the dispersion of the immigrant community throughout Iraq, as well as the Levant and the Mesopotamia. A large proportion of them ended up in the area now known as the Anbar governorate. Many of the people from this immigrant community settled in these large areas from the outskirts of Fallujah to the Syrian Bawadi, and undermined the control of some of the forces known to these areas such as the Mawali. The fact that the battle occured near Fallujah is of great importance, marking the point when the city becomes more widely known. The dispersal of the Al-Ashraf and other migrations were a key development in preserving Arabian Iraq against the attempts to make it Persian.
Keywords: (Al-Radwany bridge , Hassan Pasha , Al-Falluja , Al-Mshahid).