Gender Equality and Economic Development
The purpose of this research was to study the effect of gender equality, both in education and work, on the economic development of Indonesia, directly and indirectly. The impact of gender equality in education will be studied by education level. Analysis of the comparison among the level of education is aimed to find out level of adequate education for woman so as to encourage the economic development. Sources of data in this study is a publication issued by BPS, namely Indikator Kesejahteraan Rakyat, Statistik Ketenagakerjaan, Statistik Indonesia, and National Economic and Social Survey of 2012. This study applies multiple regression models to test hypotheses and data analysis. Ratio NER of girls to boys in junior high school has a negative effect on the per capita income, mean year school of population and urbanization. Meanwhile, Ratio NER in senior high school has a positive relationship even though no significant on per capita income, mean year school of population and urbanization. This research concluded that Indonesia don’t ever dreamed could be a developed country if it is not able to provide greater opportunities for girls to attend school at least until the senior high school level. The success of the Program WAJAR 12 Tahun is one of the keys for the purpose.
Keywords: Gender Equality, Ratio NER, Per Capita Income, Education, Work
 Abu-Ghaida, D. and Klasen, S. (2002). The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity. The World Bank, Washington D.C.
 Abu-Ghaida, D., and Klasen, S. (2004). The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity. World Development 32(7): 1075–107.
 Akpan, I. A. (2006). The impact of urbanization and institutions of higher education on Houston Texas’ Third Ward Community. Journal Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. June, 2006. Vol. 10 (2) 29 - 36
 Amu, N. J. (2005). The Role of Women in Ghana’s Economy. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Ghana.
 Barro, R., and Jong-Wha, L. (1994). Sources of Economic Growth. CarnegieRochester Conference Series on Public Policy 40: 1–46.
 Beneria, L. and Sen, G. (1981).Accumulation, Reproduction, and Women’s Role in Economic Development: Boserup Revisited. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1981, 7 (2), 279-298.
 Blecker, R. and Seguino, S. (2002). Macroeconomic Effects of Reducing Gender Wage Inequality in an Export-Oriented, Semi-Industrialized Economy. Review of Development Economics 6(1): 103–19.
 Barro, R. and Sala-I, X. M. (1995).Economic Growth. New York: McGraw- Hill.
 Bloom, D. and Williamson, J. (1997). Demographic Transition and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia. NBER Working Paper 6268.
 Bloom, D. E., and Williamson, J. G. (1998). Demographic Transition and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia. World Bank Economic Review 12(3): 419–55.
 Bodkin, R.G. (1999). Women’s Agency in Classical Economic Thought: Adam Smith, Harriet Taylor Mill, and J. S. Mill. Feminist Economics, 5(1), 45-60.
 Borjas, G. J. (2010). Labor Economics, Fifth Edition. Singapore: McGraw-Hill International Edition.
 Bradshaw, S., Castellino, J. and Diop, B. (2013). Women’s role in economic development: Overcoming the constraints. Background paper for the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Sustainable Development Solution Network.
 Busse, M. and Spielmann, C. (2006). Gender Inequality and Trade. Review of International Economics 14(3): 362–79.
 Cavalcanti, T. V. and Tavares, J. (2007). The Output Costs of Gender Discrimination: A Model-Based Macroeconomic Estimate. Mimeograph, University of Lisbon.
 Chen, D. H. C. (2004). Gender Equality and Economic Development: The Role of Information Communication Technologies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3285.
 Credit Suisse Research (CSR) (2007), Economics: More Women, MoreGrowth.
 Deckard, B. S. (1983). The Women’s Movement: Political, Socio-economic and Psychological Issues. Harper & Row Publishers, NY.
 Dollar, D and Gatti, R. (1999). Gender Inequality, income, and Growth: Are Good Times Good for Women? Policy Research Report on Gender and Development, Working Paper Series, No. 1, The World Bank, May.
 Durán, A. L. Keynote speech at High-Level Roundtable “The implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the outcomes of the 23rd special session of the General Assembly and its contribution to shaping a gender perspective towards the full realization of the MDGs”. 54th session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, United Nations Headquarters NY, March 2010.
 Easterly, W. (1999). Life During Growth. Journal of Economic Growth. Vol. 4, No. 3 (September), 239-76.
 Forbes, K. (2000). A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth. American Economic Review 90(4): 869–87.
 Forget, E.L. (1997). The Market For Virtue: Jean- Baptiste Say On Women in The Economy and Society, Feminist Economics, 3(1), 95-111.
 Galor, O., and Weil, D. N. (1996). The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth. American Economic Review 86(3), 374–87.
 Gyimah-Brempong, K., Paddison, O., and Mitiku, W. (2005).Higher Education and Economic Growth in Africa. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, 509– 529, April 2006.
 Haddad, L. J., Hoddinott, J., and Alderman, H. (1997). Intra household Resource Allocation in Developing Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
 Hill, M. A. and King, E. M. (1993). Women’s Education in Developing Countries: An Overview. In Elizabeth M. King and M. Anne Hill (eds.) Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies. The World Bank, John Hopkins University Press.
 Hill, M. A. and King, E. M. (1995). Women’s Education and Economic Well-Being. Feminist Economics 1(2): 1–26.
 King, E. M., Klasen, S., and Porter, M. (2008). Gender and Development Challenge. Paper prepared for 2008 round of Copenhagen Consensus Project. Mimeographed, Copenhagen Consensus Center.
 Klasen, S. (1999). Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development Working Paper Series, No.7, the World Bank, November.
 Klasen, S. (2002). Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development. World Bank Economic Review 16(3): 345–73.
 Klasen, S. and Wink, C. (2003). Missing Women: Revisiting the Debate. Feminist Economics 9(2/3): 263–99.
 Klasen, S., and Lamanna, F. (2009). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for a Panel of Countries. Feminist Economics 15(3), 91–132.
 Knowles, S., Lorgelly, P., and Owen, D. (2002). Are Educational Gender Gaps a Brake on EconomicDevelopment? Some Cross-Country Empirical Evidence. Oxford Economic Papers 54(1): 118–49.
 Lansky, K. (2000). Gender, Women and All the Rest. International Labour Review, 139 (4), 481-505.
 Nils-Petter, L. (2003). Gender Equality and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Economic Growth 8(4), 403–26.
 Organisation for Economic Cooperationand Development (OECD) (2008).Gender and Sustainable Development. MaximisingThe Economic Social and Environmental Role Of Woman.
 Palaz, S. (2005). Toplumsal Cinsiyetve Kalk