The Influence of Company Profitability, Corporate Risk, Audit Report Lag, and CEO Gender on Audit Fee


This research aims to examine the influence of company profitability, company risk, audit report lag, and CEO gender on audit fees and to test the differences in independent variables and dependent variables before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The object of this research is non-financial sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2018–2021. This research uses secondary data. The number of samples in this research was 75. The sample selection technique used is purposive sampling. Data analysis was done using panel data analysis, paired sample t-tests, and Wilcoxon tests. Results show that the audit report lag variable has a positive effect on audit fees. In contrast, the variables of company profitability, company risk, and CEO gender do not affect audit fees. Based on the results of the average difference test, the profitability and audit report lag variables experienced significant changes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, while the audit fee, company risk, and CEO gender variables did not experience significant changes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: audit fee, company profitability, company risk, audit report lag, CEO gender

[1] Tambunan D. Stock investment during the pandemic related papers. Widya Cipta: Journal of Education and Management. 2020;4(2):117–123.

[2] Wright S. The shifting balance theory and macroevolution. Dep Genet Univ Wisconsin.1989;2(1).

[3] Ma H. The influence of audit complexity, client profitability, company size and public accounting firm size on audit fees. Pekbis J. 2017;9(3):214–230.

[4] Yulianti N, Agustin H, Taqwa S. The influence of company size, audit complexity, company risk, and cap size on audit fees. Journal of Accounting Exploration. 2019;1(1):217–255.

[5] Afdhalastin A, Yuyetta E. Analysis of the influence of concentrated ownership structure, complexity, profitability, and company risk on audit fee. J Account. 2021;10(4):1–15.

[6] Sinaga AS. Amount of audit fee. Accounting. Auditing & Information Research Media. 2018;18(1):19.

[7] Handayani T. Sugiarti. Gender research concepts and techniques. Malang: Muhammadiyah University Of Malang; 2017.

[8] Januarti I, Wiryaningrum M. The effect of size, profitability, risk, complexity, and independent audit committee on audit fee. Jda J Account Dyn. 2018;10(2):136–145.

[9] Huri S, Syofyan E. The influence of industry type, company size, company complexity and client profitability on audit fees. Journal of Exploratory Accounting. 2019;1(3):1096–1110.

[10] Suryanto R. Dewi Sa, Sofyani H. The influence of corporate governance structure and company risk on audit fees. Journal of Accounting Research & Accounting Computerization. 2018;66(1):37–39.

[11] Ma S, Purwanto A. Analysis of factors affecting external audit fees. Diponegoro Journal of Accounting. 2017;6(3):1–9.

[12] Naser K, Hassan Y. Factors influencing external audit fees of companies listed on dubai financial market. Manag Finance. 2016;34(10).

[13] Abdullah H, Ali R, Hariem A, et al. A proposed framework of audit fees determinants in kurdistan region. European Journal of Business and Management. 2016;8(12):1– 12.

[14] Kanakriyah R. Model to determine main factors used to measure audit fees. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal. 2020;24(2):1–13.

[15] Vitolla F, Nicola R, Rubino R. Board characteristics and integrated reporting quality: An agency theory perspective. Corp Soc Resp Environ Manag. 2020;27(2):1152– 1163.

[16] Nekhili M, Gull AA, Chtioui T, Radhouane I. Gender-diverse boards and audit fees: What difference does gender quota legislation make? J Bus Finance Account. 2020;47(1–2):52–99.

[17] Alkebsee R, Tian G, Usman M, Et A. Gender diversity in audit committees and audit fees: Evidence from China. Manag Audit J. 2021;36(1):72–104.

[18] Lai K, Srindhi B, Gul F, et al. Board gender diversity, auditor fees and auditor choice. Contemp Account Res. 2017;38(1):42–49.

[19] Akhtar F, Veeraraghavan M, Zolotoy L. Board gender diversity and firm value in times of crisis: Evidence from the Covid-19 pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal. 2021.

[20] Ismanto H, Pebruary S. SPSS and Eviews applications. Research Data Analysis. 1st ed. Deepublish; 2021.

[21] Rne T, Tat MD, Erik RN, Murdiawati AD. Faktor-Faktor Penentu Tarif Biaya Audit Eksternal (Audit Fee) Pada Perusahaan Non-Keuangan [ Jurnal Ilmu Akuntansi]. Jia. 2020;5(1):177–195.

[22] Harahap D, Irawady C, Bede D, Et A. Audit fee: Evidence from Indonesia after adopting international standards on auditing (Isas). Review of Integrative Business and Economic Research. 2018;7:170–182.

[23] Fisabilillah P, Fahria R, Praptiningsih P. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan, Risiko Perusahaan, Dan Profitabilitas Klien Terhadap Audit Fee. Jurnal Ilmiah Akuntansi Kesatuan. 2020;8(3):361–372.

[24] Fujianti L. Analisis Perbedaan Kinerja Keuangan Sebelum Dan Masa Pandemi Covid 19 Di Berbagai Sub Sektor Industri Manufaktur. Jrb-Jurnal Riset Bisnis. 2022;6(1):41– 53.

[25] Sabella R, Alfizahri N, Izfahany F. Finacial Distress Dan Audit Report Pada Masa Pendemi Covid-19. Jurnal Akuntansi Dan Audit Syariah. 2021;2(1):58–69.

[26] Ma H, Laksmana I. The impact of Covid-19 lockdown on audit fees and audit delay: International evidence. International Journal of Accounting & Information Management. 2022;30(4):526–545.

[27] Emestine I, Setyaningrum D. CEO characteristics and firm performance; Empirical studies from ASEAN countries. In: 2018 International Conference On Islamic Economics And Business (Iconies 2018). 2019. pp. 423–427.

[28] Thoomaszen S, Hidayat W. Board gender diversity and firm performance. E-Journal Account. 2020;30:2040–2052.

[29] Albitar K, Gerged AM, Kikhia H, Hussainey K. Auditing in times of social distancing: the effect of Covid-19 on auditing quality. International Journal of Accounting & Information Management. 2020;29(1):169–178.

[30] Widiastutik Rn, Rustam Ar. Pengaruh Fee Audit Dan Audit Delay Terhadap Kualitas Audit Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Reviu Akuntansi, Keuangan, Dan Sistem Informasi. 2022;1(2).

[31] Chen H, Hua S, Liu Z, Zhang M. Audit fees, perceived audit risk, and the financial crisis of 2008. Asian Rev Account. 2019;27(1):97–111.