Learning Problems of Prospective Teachers in Lectures Modern Physics During the Covid-19 Pandemic


Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit the world, many problems have been caused by accompanying effects, including impacts in the field of education. This study aims to explore the problems faced by physics education study program students in modern physics lectures in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The method used in this study is a qualitative description with a questionnaire as a data collection technique. A total of 28 students who contracted modern physics courses and two lecturers who taught modern physics courses were participants in this study. The collected data were analyzed descriptively-qualitatively. After data analysis, several problems faced by students in attending modern physics lectures can be identified, namely: difficulty mastering concepts, internet signal interference, less interesting/monotonous learning, and never doing modern physics practicum. Limited tools are the main factor in the inability to carry out practicum. Even though practicum allows students to master abstract concepts of modern physics. Based on these findings, further research can be carried out that can facilitate students to more easily master modern physics concepts that are integrated with a practicum in the learning process.

Keywords: learning problems, prospective teachers, lectures modern physics, covid-19 pandemic

[1] Puig B, Blanco-Anaya P, Pérez-Maceira JJ. “‘Fake News’ or Real Science? Critical Thinking to Assess Information on COVID-19,” Frontiers in Education. vol. 6, no. March 2020, pp. 1–10, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.646909.

[2] Adams D, Chuah KM, Mohamed A, Sumintono B. Bricks to Clicks: Students’ Engagement in E-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education. 2022;36(2):99–117.

[3] Raman R, Vinuesa R, Nedungadi P. “Acquisition and user behavior in online science laboratories before and during the covid-19 pandemic.,” Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. vol. 5, no. 8, p. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5080046.

[4] Afify MK. The influence of group size in the asynchronous online discussions on the development of critical thinking skills, and on improving students’ performance in online discussion forum. Int J Emerg Technol Learn. 2019;14(5):132–52.

[5] Ahmed ME, Hasegawa S. The effects of a new virtual learning platform on improving student skills in designing and producing online virtual laboratories. Knowledge Management and E-Learning. 2019;11(3):364–77.

[6] Teresa Fuertes?Camacho M, Dulsat?ortiz C, Álvarez?cánovas I. “Reflective practice in times of COVID?19: A tool to improve education for sustainable development in pre?service teacher training.,” Sustainability (Switzerland). vol. 13, no. 11, p. 2021.

[7] F. Neil M. L. Daniel, N.-G. Gemma, et al., “Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand.,” Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team. no. March, p. 2020.

[8] Arabatzis T. “How Physica Became Physics.,” In: Science & Education. Science & Education (2017).

[9] Hermann G. The Significance for Natural Philosophy of the Move from Classical to Modern Physics. J Gen Philos Sci. 2020;51(4):627–9.

[10] Xu W, Celestin S, Pasko VP, Marshall RA. Compton Scattering Effects on the Spectral and Temporal Properties of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. J Geophys Res Space Phys. 2019;124(May):1–11.

[11] Talmantaite A, Hunt MR, Mendis BG. Electron Compton scattering and the measurement of electron momentum distributions in solids. J Microsc. 2019;00(02020):1–4.

[12] Khomitsky DV, Kulakov DA. Scattering of Wave Packets on the Surface of Topological Insulators in the Presence of Potential Barriers with Magnetization. J Exp Theor Phys. 2020;130(1):14–27.

[13] Kulygin AK, Kulygin KV, Avilov AS. New Approaches to Precise Measurements of Electron Diffraction Patterns. Crystallogr Rep. 2020;65(2):325–34.

[14] G. Hernández and F. Fernández, “Diagnostic of electron temperature from bremsstrahlung in overdense targets.,” Applied Physics B. vol. 0, no. 0, p. 0, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-018-6999-5.

[15] Al EB, Kasapoglu E, Sari H, et al. Zeeman splitting, Zeeman transitions and optical absorption of an electron confined in spherical quantum dots under the magnetic field. Philos Mag. 2020;(24):1–13.

[16] S.A. Rashkovskiy, “Nonlinear Schro¨dinger equation and semiclassical description of the microwave-to-optical frequency conversion based on the Lamb– Retherford experiment.,” Indian Journal of Physics. p. 2019.

[17] Ivanjek L, Shaffer P, Planini M, Mcdermott L. Probing student understanding of spectra through the use of a typical experiment used in teaching introductory modern physics. Phys Rev Phys Educ Res. 2020;010102(16):1–15.

[18] Mutohhari F, Sutiman S, Nurtanto M, Kholifah N, Samsudin A. Difficulties in implementing 21st century skills competence in vocational education learning. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. 2021;10(4):1229–36.

[19] Soltani A, Askarizadeh G. How students’ conceptions of learning science are related to their motivational beliefs and self-regulation. Learn Motiv. 2021;73( January):101707.

[20] Gaupp R, Fabry G, Körner M. Self-regulated learning and critical reflection in an e-learning on patient safety for third-year medical students. Int J Med Educ. 2018 Jul;9:189–94.

[21] Bao L, Koenig K. Physics education research for 21st century learning. Discip Interdiscip Sci Educ Res. 2019;1(1):1–12.

[22] Juandi T, Kaniawati I, Samsudin A, Riza LS. “Implementing the rasch model to assess the level of students’ critical and reflective thinking skills on the photoelectric effect,” Momentum: Physics Education Journal. vol. 7, no. 2, p. 2023. https://doi.org/10.21067/mpej.v7i2.8252.

[23] Lindberg M, Silvennoinen H. Assessing the basic skills of the highly educated in 21 OECD countries : an international benchmark study of graduates ’ proficiency in literacy and numeracy using the PIAAC 2012 data. Comp Educ. 2017;0(0):1–27.

[24] Zulfiani IP, Sumantri MF. Science adaptive assessment tool: kolb’s learning style profile and student’s higher order thinking skill level. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia. 2020;9(2):194–207.

[25] Kaniawati I, Fratiwi NJ, Danawan A, Suyana I, Samsudin A, Suhendi E. Analyzing students’ misconceptions about Newton’s Laws through Four-Tier Newtonian Test (FTNT). Journal of Turkish Science Education. 2019;16(1):110–22.

[26] Anselmi P, Colledani D, Robusto E. A Comparison of Classical and Modern Measures of Internal Consistency. Front Psychol. 2019 Dec;10(December):2714.

[27] Samsudin A, Suhandi A, Rusdiana D, Kaniawati I, Costu B. Promoting conceptual understanding on magnetic field concept through interactive conceptual instruction (ICI) with PDEODE*E tasks. Adv Sci Lett. 2017;23(2):1205–9.

[28] W.J. Creswell and J.D. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative adn Mixed Methods Approaches., 2018.

[29] Korstjens I, Moser A. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 6: Longitudinal qualitative and mixed-methods approaches for longitudinal and complex health themes in primary care research. Eur J Gen Pract. 2022 Dec;28(1):118–24.

[30] Verawati NN, Hikmawati S, Prayogi S, Bilad MR. Prayogi, and M.R. Bilad, “Reflective Practices in Inquiry Learning: Its Effectiveness in Training Pre-Service Teachers’ Critical Thinking Viewed From Cognitive Styles,”. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia. 2021;10(4):505–14.

[31] Dou R, Teodorescu R, Madsen A, Redish EF, Reeves M. Examining course syllabi : introductory physics for life sciences. Phys Rev Phys Educ Res. 2019;15(2):20143.

[32] G. Muhametjanova and A. Akmatbekova, “The Web-based Learning Environment in General Physics Course in a Public University in Kyrgyzstan.,” EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. vol. 15, no. 3, p. 2019. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/100409.

[33] Alves EG, Santos AL. Photoelectric effect: development of a quantitative experiment. Rev Bras Ensino Fis. 2021;43:1–9.

[34] Hassan J, Devi A, Ray B. “Virtual Laboratories in Tertiary Education: Case Study Analysis by Learning Theories.,” Education Sciences. vol. 12, no. 8, p. 2022.

[35] Park C, Hong HG. Educational Practices in Sommerfeld School: A Case of Scientist Education from the View of Nature of Science. Sci Educ. 2022;31(1):173–91.

[36] Wästberg BS, Eriksson T, Karlsson G, Sunnerstam M, Michael A, Billger M. “Design considerations for virtual laboratories : A comparative study of two virtual laboratories for learning about gas solubility and colour appearance.,” Education and Information Technologies. p. 2019.

[37] Ichsan IZ, Sigit DV, Miarsyah M, Ali A, Arif WP, Prayitno TA. HOTS-AEP: higher order thinking skills from elementary to master students in environmental learning. European Journal of Educational Research. 2019;8(4):935–42.

[38] Rahmayanti H, Ichsan IZ, Arif WP, Sa’diyah R, Irwandani, Fachrial NF. Irwandani, and N.F.H. Fachrial, “Higher-Order Thinking Skills of High School and College Students on Flood Mitigation.,”. Journal of People, Plants, and Environment. 2022;25(1):33–8.

[39] Hamal O, El Faddouli NE, Alaoui Harouni MH, Lu J. Artificial Intelligent in Education. Sustainability (Switzerland). 2022;14(5):1–11.

[40] Li W, Liu F. “Exploration on College Ideological and Political Education Integrating Artificial Intelligence-Intellectualized Information Technology.,” Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience. vol. 2022, p. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4844565.

[41] Long W, Gao Y. “Artificial Intelligence Education System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm to Optimize SVM.,” Scientific Programming. vol. 2022, p. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5379646.

[42] Douali L, Selmaoui S, Bouab W. Artificial Intelligence in Education: fears and Faiths. Int J Inf Educ Technol. 2022;12(7):650–7.

[43] C. Xie, M. Ruan, P. Lin, et al., “Influence of Artificial Intelligence in Education on Adolescents’ Social Adaptability: A Machine Learning Study,.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. vol. 19, no. 13, p. 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137890.

[44] Sun Y, Latora V. The evolution of knowledge within and across fields in modern physics. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul;10(1):12097.

[45] Hussin WN, Harun J, Shukor NA. Online interaction in social learning environment towards critical thinking skill: A framework. Journal of Technology and Science Education. 2019;9(1):4–12.

[46] Brockman RM, Taylor JM, Segars LW, Selke V, Taylor TA. “Student perceptions of online and in-person microbiology laboratory experiences in undergraduate medical education.,” Medical Education Online. vol. 25, no. 1, p. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2019.1710324.

[47] Munawar S, Toor SK, Aslam M, Hamid M. Move to smart learning environment: exploratory research of challenges in computer laboratory and design intelligent virtual laboratory for eLearning technology. Eurasia J Math Sci Technol Educ. 2018;14(5):1645–62.

[48] Santos ML, Prudente M. Effectiveness of virtual laboratories in science education: A meta-analysis. Int J Inf Educ Technol. 2022;12(2):150–6.

[49] Hao C, Zheng A, Wang Y, Jiang B. Experiment information system based on an online virtual laboratory. Future Internet. 2021;13(2):1–19.

[50] Achuthan K, Nedungadi P, Kolil VK, Diwakar S, Raman R. “Innovation adoption and diffusion of virtual laboratories.,” International journal of online and biomedical engineering. vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 4–25, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v16i09.11685.

[51] El Kharki K, Berrada K, Burgos D. “Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory for physics subjects in moroccan universities.,” Sustainability (Switzerland). vol. 13, no. 7, p. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073711.

[52] Haron MZ, Zalli MM, Othman MK, Awang MI. Examining the teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and learning facilities towards teaching quality. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. 2021;10(1):1–7.

[53] Ulazia A, Ibarra-Berastegi G. “Problem-based learning in university studies on renewable energies: Case of a laboratory windpump.,” Sustainability (Switzerland). vol. 12, no. 6, p. 2020.

[54] N. Sa’adah Jamaluddin, S. Abdul Kadir, A. Abdullah, and S. Noormi Alias, “Learning strategy and higher order thinking skills of students in accounting studies: Correlation and regression analysis.,” Universal Journal of Educational Research. vol. 8, no. 3 3C, pp. 85–90, 2020. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.081610.

[55] El Islami RA, Nuangchalerm P. Comparative study of scientific literacy: indonesian and thai pre-service science teachers report. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. 2020;9(2):261–8.

[56] Trúchly P, Medvecký M, Podhradský P, El Mawas N. STEM education supported by virtual laboratory incorporated in self-directed learning process. Journal of Electrical Engineering. 2019;70(4):332–44.

[57] Azid N, Ali RM, El Khuluqo I, Purwanto SE, Susanti EN. Higher order thinking skills, school-based assessment and students’ mathematics achievement: understanding teachers’ thoughts [IJERE]. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. 2022;11(1):290.

[58] Lebedev P, Sharma MD. Riddles on youtube: investigating the potential to engage viewers in reflective thinking. Res Learn Technol. 2019;27(1063519):1–12.

[59] Wenning CJ. Level of Inquiry: Using Inquiry Spectrum Learning Sequences on Teach Science. Journal of Physics Teacher Eucation Online. 2011;6(2):11–20.

[60] B.D. Wale and K.S. Bishaw, “Effects of using inquiry-based learning on EFL students’ critical thinking skills,.” Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. vol. 5, no. 1, p. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-020-00090-2.

[61] Altalbe AA. Performance Impact of Simulation-Based Virtual Laboratory on Engineering Students: A Case Study of Australia Virtual System. IEEE Access. 2019;7:177387–96.

[62] Szabo ZK, Körtesi P, Guncaga J, Szabo D, Neag R. Examples of problem-solving strategies in mathematics education supporting the sustainability of 21st-century skills. Sustainability (Basel). 2020;12(23):1–28.