The Needs Analysis for Secondary School Science Teachers in Delivering STEM Learning on Socio-scientific Issues


This study aimed to obtain the analysis results of the needs for science teachers in STEM learning on socio-scientific issues. The study involved 135 respondents from various education stakeholders such as Dinas Pendidikan or education department, education and training institutions, and secondary school science teachers. This study utilized a descriptive method. The data were obtained using document analysis instruments, observation guidelines, questionnaires, interview guidelines, and field notes. Then, the data were analyzed descriptively. The results of this study showed that the implementation of STEM training programs was rated in the good category (76%). Teachers still find difficulties in integrating STEM into their teaching due to their lack of understanding of STEM, limited examples in STEM learning, and poor collaboration between teachers in setting learning objectives, scenarios, LKPD, and STEM assessments associated with SSI. Based on the findings through the selected research instruments, the needs of teachers in integrating STEM into their teaching are as follows: 95.5% of teachers stated that STEM integration training was needed, 76.5% of teachers thought that education and training should be sustainable, 77.3% of teachers stated that there was a need for collaboration in the MGMP community, and 72.7% of teachers think they need integrated examples of STEM learning. Furthermore, there are other things required in the training program, which are the utilization of ICT in training, teachers’ active participation in preparing the training program, synchronous activities through online meetings and mentoring, and incorporating socio-scientific issues in STEM learning.

Keywords: science teachers, STEM learning, socio-scientific issues

[1] Jalmo T, Rustaman NY. Pengembangan program pelatihan peningkatan kompetensi guru IPA SMP. Forum Pendidikan. 2010;30(1):79–89.

[2] Johnson J, Macalalag AZ, Dunphy J. “Incorporating socioscientific issues into a STEM education course: exploring teacher use of argumentation in SSI and plans for classroom implementation.,” Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Science Education Research. vol. 2, no. 1, p. 2020.

[3] UNESCO. Education for sustainable development goals learning objectives. UNESCO; 2017.

[4] World Commision Environment and Development, Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future., 2008.

[5] Mesutoglu C, Baran E. Examining the development of middle school science teachers’ understanding of engineering design process. Int J Sci Math Educ. 2020;18(8):1509–29.

[6] Richmond G, Dershimer RC, Ferreira M, Maylone N, Kubitskey B, Meriweather A. Developing and sustaining an educative mentoring model of STEM teacher professional development through collaborative partnership. Mentor Tutoring. 2017;25(1):5–26.

[7] Rico A, Agirre-Basurko E, Ruiz-González A, Palacios-Agundez I, Zuazagoitia D. “Integrating mathematics and science teaching in the context of education for sustainable development: design and pilot implementation of a teaching-learning sequence about air quality with pre-service primary teachers.,” Sustainability (Switzerland). vol. 13, no. 8, p. 2021.

[8] Juškeviciene A, Dagiene V, Dolgopolovas V. Integrated activities in STEM environment: methodology and implementation practice. Comput Appl Eng Educ. 2021;29(1):209–28.

[9] Sánchez-Carracedo F, Moreno-Pino FM, Romero-Portillo D, Sureda B. Education for sustainable development in Spanish university education degrees. Sustainability (Basel). 2021;13(3):1–24.

[10] Conradty C, Bogner FX. “STEAM teaching professional development works: effects on students’ creativity and motivation,” Smart Learning Environments. vol. 7, no. 1, p. 2020.

[11] Demirhan E, Sahin F. The effects of different kinds of hands-on modeling activities on the academic achievement, problem-solving skills, and scientific creativity of prospective science teachers. Res Sci Educ. 2021;51 S2:1015–33.

[12] Struyf A, De Loof H, Boeve-de Pauw J, Van Petegem P. Students’ engagement in different STEM learning environments: integrated STEM education as promising practice? Int J Sci Educ. 2019;41(10):1387–407.

[13] Al-Harthi AS, Campbell C, Karimi A. Teachers’ cloud-based learning designs: the development of a guiding rubric using the TPACK framework. Comput Schools. 2018;35(2):134–51.

[14] Kajonmanee T, Chaipidech P, Srisawasdi N, Chaipah K. A personalised mobile learning system for promoting STEM discipline teachers’ TPACK development. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation. 2020;14(2):215–35.

[15] Chai CS, Jong M, Yan Z. Surveying Chinese teachers’ technological pedagogical STEM knowledge: a pilot validation of STEM-TPACK survey. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation. 2020;14(2):203–14.

[16] Boice KL, Jackson JR, Alemdar M, Rao AE, Grossman S, Usselman M. Supporting teachers on their STEAM journey: a collaborative STEAM teacher training program. Educ Sci (Basel). 2021;11(3):1–20.

[17] Awad N, Barak M. Pre-service science teachers learn a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-oriented program: the case of sound, waves and communication systems. Eurasia J Math Sci Technol Educ. 2018;14(4):1431–51.

[18] Bichler S, Gerard L, Bradford A, Linn MC. Designing a remote professional development course to support teacher customization in science. Comput Human Behav. 2021 Oct;123:106814.

[19] Aldahmash AH, Alamri NM, Aljallal MA, Bevins S. “Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after participating in a professional development program,” Cogent Education. vol. 6, no. 1, p. 2019.

[20] Marei A, Yoon SA, Yoo JU, Richman T, Noushad N, Miller K, et al. Designing feedback systems: examining a feedback approach to facilitation in an online asynchronous professional development course for high school science teachers. Systems (Basel). 2021;9(1):1–24.

[21] Lee R. Breaking down barriers and building bridges: transformative practices in community- and school-based urban teacher preparation. J Teach Educ. 2018;69(2):118–26.

[22] Juares Bento Silva SB. Isabela Nardi Silva, “Technological structure for technology integration in the classroom, inspired by the maker culture.,” Journal of iIformation Technology Education. Research. 2020;19:168–204.

[23] Coenders F, Verhoef N. Lesson Study: professional development (PD) for beginning and experienced teachers. Prof Dev Educ. 2019;45(2):217–30.

[24] Supovitz JA, Turner HM. The effects of professional development on science teaching practices and classroom culture. J Res Sci Teach. 2000;37(9):963–80.

[25] Tas T, Houtveen T, Van de Grift W. “Effects of data feedback in the teacher training community.,” Capital and Community. p. 2019. 0023.

[26] Yang Y, Liu X, Gardella JA Jr. Effects of a professional development program on science teacher knowledge and practice, and student understanding of interdisciplinary science concepts. J Res Sci Teach. 2020;57(7):1028–57.

[27] Desimone LM. Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educ Res. 2009;38(3):181–99.

[28] Ng W, Fergusson J. Technology-enhanced science partnership initiative: impact on secondary science teachers. Res Sci Educ. 2019;49(1):219–42.