Sociodemographic Factors and Stress Levels Among Health Workers in Malang During Covid-19 Pandemic


Many health agencies and medical personnel are overwhelmed with handling COVID- 19 patients. Not even a few health workers are victims. In carrying out their duties in the field, health workers experience anxiety and stress about their work. Variations in different socio-demographic factors of health workers may be determinants of different psychosocial risks. Therefore, this study aims to determine the socio-demographic factors that can predict stress on health workers in Malang through quantitative research with a comparative design. The participants in this study were 102 health workers selected using a cluster sampling technique. The study used the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) instrument and a descriptive questionnaire for socio-demographic data. Data were analyzed using an independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Variations in the concentration of socio-demographic factors have no role in the stress level of health workers.

Keywords: health workers, sociodemographic, stress

[1] Mona N. Konsep isolasi dalam jaringan sosial untuk meminimalisasi efek contagious (kasus penyebaran virus corona di indonesia. Jurnal Sosial Humaniora Terapan. 2020;2.

[2] World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Available from: speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-mediabriefing- on-covid-19—11-march-2020

[3] Suni NS. Tingginya kasus aktif dan angka kematian akibat covid-19 di Indonesia. J Pus Penelit Badan Keahlian DPR RI. 2021;13(3).

[4] Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19. Peta Sebaran COVID-19.

[5] Nasrullah D, Natsir M, Twistiandayani R, Rohayani L, Siswanto S, Sumartyawati NM, et al. Psychological impact among health workers in effort to facing the COVID-19 in Indonesia. International Journal of Public Health Science. 2021;10(1):181.

[6] Schulte PM. What is environmental stress? Insights from fish living in a variable environment. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014;217(Pt 1):23–34.

[7] Rodríguez S, Valle A, Piñeiro I, Rodríguez-Llorente C, Guerrero E, Martins L. Sociodemographic characteristics and stress of people from spain confined by COVID-19. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 2020;10(4):1095–1105.

[8] Dudutiene D, Juodaite-Rackauskiene A, Stukas R. Developing stress management programs in a public primary healthcare institution: Should we consider health workers’ sociodemographic groups? [Internet]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020;56(4):162.

[9] Folkman S. Stress: Appraisal and coping. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. New York (NY): Springer New York; 2013. 1913–1915 p.

[10] Lazarus RS, Cohen JB. Environmental stress. Human behavior and environment. Boston (MA): Springer US; 1977. 89–127 p.

[11] Baum A, Singer JE, Baum CS. Stress and the environment. Journal of Social Issues. 1981;37(1):4–35.

[12] Levin S, Van Laar C. Stigma and group inequality: Social psychological perspectives. Psychology Press; 2006.

[13] Osei-Mireku G, Wang X, Lartey J, Sarpong F. Individual differences in experiencing occupational stress—A case study on nurses of tamale teaching hospital (TTH). Open Journal of Business and Management. 2020;08(04):1657–1573.

[14] Zhu Z, Xu S, Wang H, Liu Z, Wu J, Li G, et al. COVID-19 in Wuhan: Sociodemographic characteristics and hospital support measures associated with the immediate psychological impact on healthcare workers. eClinicalMedicine. 2020;24:100443.

[15] La Torre G, Sestili C, Mannocci A, Sinopoli A, De Paolis M, De Francesco S, et al. Association betweenwork related stress and health related quality of life: The impact of socio-demographic variables. a cross sectional study in a region of central Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(1):159.

[16] Gonçalves L, Sala R, Navarro JB. Resilience and occupational health of health care workers: A moderator analysis of organizational resilience and sociodemographic attributes. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2022;95(1):223–232.

[17] Bregar B, Skela-Savic B, Kores Plesnicar B. Cross-sectional study on nurses’ attitudes regarding coercive measures: the importance of socio-demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, and strategies for coping with stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2018:171.

[18] Haq Z, Iqbal Z, Rahman A. Job stress among community health workers: A multi-method study from Pakistan. International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 2008;2(1):15.

[19] Sharma P, Davey A, Davey S, Shukla A, Shrivastava K, Bansal R. Occupational stress among staff nurses: controlling the risk to health. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014;18(2):52–56.

[20] Al-Omar BA. Sources of work-stress among hospital-staff at the Saudi MOH. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Economics and Administration. 2003;17(1):3–16.

[21] Aldarmasi MA, Alghamdi AH. Factors influencing stress perception among healthcare workers during the coronavirus pandemic: A multi-centric crosssectional study. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences. 2021;10(4):142–149.

[22] Kakemam E, Raeissi P, Raoofi S, Soltani A, Sokhanvar M, Visentin D, et al. Occupational stress and associated risk factors among nurses: A cross-sectional study. Contemporary Nurse. 2019;55(2–3):237–249.

[23] Karyati Z, Antara EYD, PUEBI: Suatu analisis komparatif. SAP (Susunan Artik Pendidikan). 2016;1(2).

[24] Sedgwick P. Cluster sampling. BMJ. 2014;348( jan31 2):g1215–g1215.

[25] Ben-Zur H, Zeidner M. Gender differences in coping reactions under community crisis and daily routine conditions. Personality and Individual Differences. 1996;20(3):331– 340.

[26] Rosario M, Shinn M, Mørch H, Huckabee CB. Gender differences in coping and social supports: Testing socialization and role constraint theories. Journal of Community Psychology. 1988;16(1):55–69.

[27] Alyahya S, AboGazalah F. Work-related stressors among the healthcare professionals in the fever clinic centers for individuals with symptoms of COVID-19. Healthcare. 2021;9(5):548.

[28] Holt-Lunstad J, Birmingham W, Jones BQ. Is there something unique about marriage? The relative impact of marital status, relationship quality, and network social support on ambulatory blood pressure and mental health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2008;35(2):239–244.

[29] Scheid TL, Wright ER, editors. A handbook for the study of mental health. Cambridge University Press; 2017.

[30] Shaukat N, Ali DM, Razzak J. Physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: A scoping review. International Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2020;13(1):40.

[31] Preti E, Di Mattei V, Perego G, Ferrari F, Mazzetti M, Taranto P, et al. The psychological impact of epidemic and pandemic outbreaks on healthcare workers: Rapid review of the evidence. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2020;22(8):43.

[32] Costantino C, Cannizzaro E, Verso MG, Tramuto F, Maida CM, Lacca G, et al. SARSCoV- 2 infection in healthcare professionals and general population during “First Wave” of COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study conducted in Sicily, Italy. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021;9.

[33] Etesam F, Akhlaghi M, Vahabi Z, Akbarpour S, Sadeghian MH. Comparative study of occupational burnout and job stress of frontline and non-frontline healthcare workers in hospital wards during COVID-19 pandemic. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2021;50(7):1428–1435.

[34] Tan BY, Chew NW, Lee GK, Jing M, Goh Y, Yeo LL, et al. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in Singapore. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020;173(4):317–320.

[35] Chew NW, Ngiam JN, Tan BY, Tham SM, Tan CY, Jing M, et al. Asian-Pacific perspective on the psychological well-being of healthcare workers during the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open. 2020;6(6):e116.

[36] Dembe AE, Delbos R, Erickson JB. Estimates of injury risks for healthcare personnel working night shifts and long hours. Quality & Safety In Health Care. 2009;18(5):336– 340.

[37] Nguyen NP, Le DD, Colebunders R, Siewe Fodjo JN, Tran TD, Vo TV. Stress and associated factors among frontline healthcare workers in the COVID-19 epicenter of Da Nang City, Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(14):7378.

[38] Cabarkapa S, Nadjidai SE, Murgier J, Ng CH. The psychological impact of COVID-19 and other viral epidemics on frontline healthcare workers and ways to address it: A rapid systematic review. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 2020;8:100144.

[39] Billings J, Chi Fung Ching B, Gkofa V, Greene T, Bloomfield M. Experiences of frontline healthcare workers and their views about support during COVID-19 and previous pandemics: A systematic review and.pdf. Experiences of frontline healthcare workers and their views about support during COVID-19 and previous pandemics. BMC Health Services Research. 2021;21:923.

[40] Cai X, Hu X, Ekumi IO, Wang J, An Y, Li Z, et al. Psychological distress and its correlates among COVID-19 survivors during early convalescence across age groups. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2020;28(10):1030–1039.

[41] Xiao S, Luo D, Xiao Y. Survivors of COVID-19 are at high risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Global Health Research and Policy. 2020;5(1):29.

[42] Gómez-Durán EL, Martin-Fumadó C, Forero CG. Psychological impact of quarantine on healthcare workers [Internet]. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2020;77(10):666–674.