The Antibacterial Activity of Gambir Extract (Uncaria gambir (hunter ) Roxb ) Against Salmonella typhi


هههTyphoid fever is still a severe issue in the world. The pharmacological therapy used for typhoid fever was chloramphenicol antibiotics. However, chloramphenicol resistance to Salmonella typhi is common, so finding alternative antibacterial drugs for typhoid fever is necessary. Gambir Extract was a natural ingredient often used in non-pharmacological alternative therapies. It contained secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins which are suspected to be antibacterial. This study aimed to identify the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration values of Gambir Extract against Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity of the Gambir Extract against Salmonella typhi was screened using the well diffusion method. The MIC and MBC of the Gambir Extract were determined using the dilution method. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test. The inhibition zone of the antibacterial activity of the Gambir Extract against Salmonella typhi was 19.22 mm and had a MIC value of 50% (0.5 g/ml). The statistical analysis results of the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney test obtained significance values of 0.007 and 0.025. Therefore, Gambir Extract cannot kill Salmonella typhi. Gambir Extract has antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi with a MIC value of 0.5g/ml.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Gambir, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)

[1] Alba S, Bakker MI, Hatta M, Scheelbeek PF, Dwiyanti R, Usman R, et al. Risk factors for typhoid infection in the Indonesian archipelago. PLoS One. 2016 Jun;11(6):e0155286.

[2] World Health Organization. (2018pur). No Title.

[3] Purwaningtyas M, Prameswari G. Higeia Journal of Public Health Research and Development. 2017;1(3):625-634.

[4] Octora DD, Teresia Marbun RA, Koto R. Antibacterial Activity Test of Pirdot Leaf Ethanol Extract (Saurauia Vulcani Korth.) Against Salmonella Thypi Bacteria. Journal of Pharmacymed ( Jfm). 2019;2(1):40–4.

[5] Yashwant Kumar AS, KRM. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance markers & their stability in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Indian J Med Res. 2017;76(11):1532–9.

[6] World Health Organization. No Title. WHO Publishes List of Bacteria for Which New Antibiotics Are Urgently Needed. in WHO; 2017.

[7] Sri Janahtul Hayati1, AI. Vaccination as Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance Against Salmonella Typh Bacteria. Tambusai Journal of Health. 2021;2(3):276–83.

[8] Mahmiah M, Rama SP, Riwanti P. Antibacterial Activity of Rhizophora mucronata Poiret Stem Bark Methanol Extract against Salmonella thypi, Lignières 1900 (Enterobacteriaceae : gammaproteobacteria). Journal of Tropical Oceanism. 2020;23(2):175–82.

[9] Abidin R. antibacterial activity test of jatropha ( Jatropha curcas L) and gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb) leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018;9(1):1–11.

[10] Yunilda Rosa. ANTIFUNGUS ACTIVITY OF GAMBIR LEAF (Uncaria gambir Roxb) ETHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST Candida albicans . 2018;8( July):1–23.

[11] Yeni G, Syamsu K, Mardliyati E, Muchtar H. Determination of Process Technology on Making of Pure Gambier and Standardized Catechin from Raw Gambier. Journal of Industrial R&D. 2017;7(1):1–10.

[12] Mahdiyah D, Farida H, Riwanto I, Mustofa M, Wahjono H, Laksana Nugroho T, et al. Screening of Indonesian peat soil bacteria producing antimicrobial compounds. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020 Oct;27(10):2604–11.

[13] Daely PJ, Sarwendah S, Laia HC, Damardi S. Test of Anti-Bacterial Inhibitory Power of Pineapple (Ananas Comosus (L) Merr Var. Queen) Flesh Juice against Eschericia Coli Bacteria. Scientific Journal of Batanghari University, Jambi. 2019;19(2):

[14] Tunikata D, Aurata P. Antibacterial Activity and Functional Group Characteristics of Tunikata Polycarpa Aurata. Pharmacon. 2015;4(1):32–44.

[15] Yanti YN, Mitika S. (2017). Antibacterial Effectiveness Test of Sambiloto Leaf Ethanol Extract (Andrographis paniculata Ness) Against Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria. Ibn Sina Scientific Journal ( JIIS): Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences. 2017;2(1):158–

[16] Nurrosyidah IH, Kusumastuti AF, Rahmadani DC, Kusumastuti E. Antibacterial Activity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus radiatus L. Milk Yogurt with the Addition of Honey against E. coli, S. aureus, and Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase (ESBL). Scientific Journal of Medicamento. 2021;7(2):90–4.

[17] Putri. (2016)

[18] Mastra. (2018)

[19] CLSI M100-ED29: 2021 Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing 30th Edition. Clsi. 2020;40(1) .

[20] Trisna & Nizar. (2018)

[21] Buldani A, Yulianti R, Soedomo P. Effectiveness Test of Bangle Rhizome Extract (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.) As Antibacterial Against Vibrio Cholerae And Staphylococcus Aureus In Vitro Using Ahmad’s Disc Diffusion Method. 2nd National Seminar on Applied Science and Technology (SENIT); 2017. P.15–17.