Slip of the Tongue in English-Language Debates: A Psycholinguistic Study
Debaters need to plan, speak fluently, and think critically during a debate. However, a common error occurs during debates known as slips of the tongue. They are caused by nervousness, tension and unpreparedness. This research aimed to identify types of slips of the tongue and their units of error through a descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected from the video recording of an English Debate Competition at a university. The data were analyzed using two theories by Gleason and Ratner Click or tap here to enter text.and by DardjowidjojoClick or tap here to enter text. to investigate units of error in slips of the tongue. The second theory was presented by Altiparmak and Koruoglu which described nine types of slips of the tongue: shifts, exchanges, anticipations, persistence, additions, deletions, substitutions, blends, and deviations. There were 78 data points found in slips of the tongue - 39 units of error and 39 types of error. The units of error found in slips of the tongue were 11 distinctive feature errors, 9 syllable errors, 6 phonetic segment errors and 14 word errors. Types of the slips of the tongue were 15 deletions, 9 substitutions, 11 blends, and 4 deviations.
Keywords: Debate, Slips of Tongue, Unit of Error
 Gleason JB, NB, Ratner. Psycholinguistics. 2nd ed. Florida: Harcourt Brace College Publishers; 1998.
 Dardjowidjojo S. Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia; 2003.
 Altparmak A, Kuruolu. SLIPS OF THE TONGUE: A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC STUDY IN TURKISH LANGUAGE. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299469262
 Husnawadi. The Role of English Debating Tournament in the Face of the ASEAN Economy Community (AEC). 119 DINAMIKA ILMU. 2016;16(1).
 Pangesti F. SENYAPAN DAN KILIR LIDAH BERDAMPINGAN DALAM PRODUKSI UJARAN. Hasta Wiyata. 2019 Jan;2(1):8–17.
 Aitchison J. The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. London: Routledge; 2007. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203934715.
 Field J. Psycholinguistics: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge; 2004. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203506929.
 Yus A. “A SPEECH ERRORS/ TONGUE SLIPS PADA MASA USIA DINI,” Jurnal Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra. 2012;24(1):1–10.
 Sari NS, S. Saman, Syahrani A. Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FKIP Untan, “SELIP LIDAH TERHADAP PRODUKSI UJARAN DALAM DEBAT CAPRES DAN CAWAPRES MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN PSIKOLINGUISTIK.”
 Maldini MY, Indah RN. SLIP OF THE TONGUE AND GENDER RELATION IN ADVANCE DEBATE COMMUNITY. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching. 2020;8(4):360.
 Al-Tufaili QA, Rahi HJ. A phono-discourse analysis of tongue slips in political speech. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. 2020;11(5).
 Siti, Abdul KA, Hendra S, Munawaroh. Senyapan dan Selip Lidah dalam Acara Debat Calon Bupati dan Wakil Bupati Kabupaten Karawang 2020. EDUKATIF: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan. 2022;4(2).
 R. C. & B. K. Bogdan. Qualitative Research for education: An Introduction theory and method. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc; 1984.