Integration of Patriarchal and Matriarchal Culture System in Indonesia; Study in North and West Sumatra


Batak and Minangkabau are the two big tribes in Indonesia. It is not wrong to say that Bataks and Minangkabau are cultured. In theory, humans are cultured creatures. Culture is static, impermanent and flexible. This flexibility can be seen in the process of mixing between two or more cultures. When two cultures are at the same time and place, mixing culture becomes inevitable. Just like a melting pot or salad bowl in America. In the perspective of sociology anthropology is referred to by various terms such as acculturation, assimilation and integration. The phenomenon of cultural mixing occurs in two major tribes in Indonesia, namely Batak and Minangkabau cultures. These two cultural communities are printed on the island of Sumatra. Batak and Minangkabau people are known to be very strong in adhering to customs and culture. Both have very clear ethnic identities with very contrasting differences, including the Batak culture with a patriarchal kinship system and the Minangkabau culture which has a matriarchal kinship system. The meeting of these two major cultures through marital institutions resulted in the loss of some elements and cultural systems. The matriarchy system fades when it is in the midst of patriarchal culture and vice versa patriarchal culture experiences identity loss when it is in the midst of matriarchal culture. This is what the authors call cultural collapse. In fact, culture cannot survive when dealing with other cultures.

Keywords: Batak; Minagkabau; cultures; sociology; antropology; patriarchal; matriarchal

[1] Cho J, Morris MW, Slepian ML, Tadmor CT. Choosing fusion: The effects of diversity ideologies on preference for culturally mixed experiences. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2016.06.013.

[2] Cheon BK. The diversity of cultural diversity: Psychological consequences of different patterns of intercultural contact and mixing. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2019. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12321.

[3] Alencar A, Deuze M. News for assimilation or integration? Examining the functions of news in shaping acculturation experiences of immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain. Eur. J. Commun. 2017. doi: 10.1177/0267323117689993.

[4] Bisin A, Verdier T. ‘Beyond the melting pot’: Cultural transmission, marriage, and the evolution of ethnic and religious traits. Q. J. Econ. 2000. doi: 10.1162/003355300554953.

[5] Berumen FC. Resisting assimilation to the melting pot. J. Cult. Values Educ. 2019. doi: 10.46303/jcve.02.01.7.

[6] Mahfouz SM. America’s melting pot or the salad bowl: The stage immigrant’s dilemma. J. Foreign Lang. Cult. Civilizations. 2013.

[7] Berray M. A critical literary review of the melting pot and salad bowl assimilation and integration theories. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies. 2019. doi: 10.29333/ejecs/217.

[8] Croucher SM, Kramer E. Cultural fusion theory: An alternative to acculturation. J. Int. Intercult. Commun. 2017. doi: 10.1080/17513057.2016.1229498.

[9] Prashizky A. Ethnic fusion in migration: The new Russian–Mizrahi pop-culture hybrids in Israel. Ethnicities. 2019. doi: 10.1177/1468796819827452.

[10] Verdier T, Zenou Y. The role of social networks in cultural assimilation. J. Urban Econ. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2016.11.004.

[11] Lash CL. Making Americans: Schooling, diversity, and assimilation in the twenty-first century. RSF. 2018. doi: 10.7758/rsf.2018.4.5.05.

[12] Kalmijn M, Kraaykamp G. Determinants of cultural assimilation in the second generation. A longitudinal analysis of values about marriage and sexuality among Moroccan and Turkish migrants. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 2018. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1363644.

[13] Kemendikbud. Analisis kearifan lokal ditinjau dari keragaman budaya. Pus. Data dan Stat. Pendidik. dan Kebud. 2016.

[14] Iskandar J. Etnobiologi dan keragaman budaya di Indonesia. Umbara; 2017. doi: 10.24198/umbara.v1i1.9602.

[15] Fitriza R, Turmudi T, Juandi D, Harisman Y. Traditional measurement units: A study on the construction of rumah gadang of Minangkabau. 2019. doi: 10.1088/1742- 6596/1157/4/042123.

[16] Thamrin T. The language attitudes of minangkabau people towards minangkabau and indonesian language. Int. J. Lang. Teach. Educ. 2018. doi: 10.22437/ijolte.v2i2.5065.

[17] Widiastuti I, Kurniati F. Modernization and vernacularity in the tradition of Minangkabau architecture of the West Sumatra in Indonesia. ISVS E-journal. 2019.

[18] Cenek J, Horak M. Czech citizens in Zambia: Preliminary research on the process ofadaptation. 2015.

[19] Omar MA. Architecture, culture and needs of Australian Muslim Communities: Challenges and opportunities for social inclusion. Int. J. Humanit. Cult. Stud. (IJHCS). 2016;3(2):1390–1409.

[20] Simarangkir AP. Gondang sabangunan in a death ceremony of saur matua in the batak toba society. Int. J. English Lit. Soc. Sci. 2018. doi: 10.22161/ijels.3.6.31.

[21] Nair JVR, Sneha G. International Journal of Research and Review. 2015;2(6):343–347.

[22] Hennilawati, Sibarani R, Nasution I, Lubis S. Angkola traditional marriage: Representation and cultural values. Int. J. Multidiscip. Res. Dev. 2018.