Digital Government Platforms in Greece. Current Trends: The Case of Gov.gr
Digital platforms have become essential tools for the operational transformation of organizations over the last few decades. Governments have realized their advantages and are making progress in incorporating them into their infrastructure, especially during the COVID-19 era. This paper examines digital government platforms (DGPs), their value, and their characteristics. Previous research has identified a variety of factors that affect e-government or DGPs in differentiated cases and regions. The lack of a general list of elements that influence DGSs led to the creation of a general framework of factors that may contribute to a successful launch and operation. These 16 factors were categorized into 3 segments, information technology, government, and user. Their relationship is based on coordination/support, interaction, and feedback. In order to initially evaluate the proposed framework, it was tested through the application on the Greek public sector platform Gov.gr, and initial findings were presented. A contemporary mapping of Greece’s digital status and the Greek government’s efforts for a modern digital state were presented. Gov.gr is Greece’s official master platform that offers a significant number of governmental services to citizens and companies quickly, remotely, and efficiently. The utilization of the framework that is developed in this paper against Gov.gr offers valuable conclusions about DGP’s operation and its focus on bureaucracy reduction, accuracy, and satisfactory service. The paper concludes with research limitations and the identification of future research pathways.
Keywords: digital government pPlatforms, factors, framework, Greece, Gov.gr
 Abu-Shanab E, Shehabat I. The influence of knowledge management practices one-government success: a proposed framework tested. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy. 2018;12(3/4):286–308.
 A digital platform for calculating Greek real estate objective values. Atens. Varnavas Law Firm. 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 25]. Available from: https://www.varnavas.gr/en/newsroom/a-digital-platform-for-calculating-greek-realestate- objective-values-is-in-operation/
 Alshehri M, Drew S. E-government fundamentals. IADIS international conference ICT. Society and Human beings. 2010.
 Amankwah-Amoah J. An integrative process model of organizational failure. Journal of Business Research. 2016;69(9):3388–3397.
 Asadullah A, Faik I, Kankanhalli A. Digital platforms: A review and future directions. PACIS; 2018. 248 p.
 Bahrke J, Grammenou M. Digital Economy and Society Index 2021: Overall progress in digital transactions but need for new EUwide efforts. Brussels; 2021 [cited 202 May 8]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_5481
 Bramer WM, De Jonge GB, Rethlefsen ML, Mast F, Kleijnen J. A systematic approach to searching: An efficient and complete method to develop literature searches. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA. 2018;106(4):531.
 Brown A, Fishenden J, Thompson M, Venters W. Appraising the impact and role of platform models and Government as a Platform (GaaP) in UK Government public service reform: Towards a Platform Assessment Framework (PAF). Government Information Quarterly. 2017;34(2):167–182.
 Chan C, Pan S, Tan CW. Managing stakeholder relationships in an e-government project. AMCIS Proceedings. 2003. 98 p.
 Country Data. UN e-government database. New York; 2020 [cited 2022 Feb 21]. Available from: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/Data/Country- Information/id/67-Greece
 De Blasio E, Selva D. Implementing open government: A qualitative comparative analysis of digital platforms in France, Italy and the United Kingdom. QualQuant. 2019;53:871–896.
 Delevegos D. Inside the facilities of gov.gr. [Internet]. Athens: Ekathimerini; 2020 [cited 2022 Feb 7]. Available from: https://www.ekathimerini.com/economy/258220/inside-the-facilities-of-gov-gr/
 De Reuver M, Sørensen C, Basole RC. The digital platform: A research agenda. Journal of Information Technology. 2018;33(2):124–135.
 Digital Government Awards. Competition for the public sector. Athens: EKT; 2022 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. Available from: https://www.ekt.gr/en/news/27044
 Digital Transformation Bible 2020–2025. Athens: Hellenic Republic; 2022 [cited 2022 Apr 9]. Available from: https://digitalstrategy.Gov.gr/
 Dong X, Yu Y, Wang X, Zhang NN. Leveraging e-government for city transformation: A case study of ”Digital Wuyi”. ESIS Proceedings. 2012.
 Eisenmann T, Parker G, Van Alstyne MW. Strategies for two-sided markets. Harvard Business Review. 2006;84(10):92.
 Elevate Greece national startup point [Internet]. Athens: Elevate Greece; 2020 [cited 2022 Mar 15]. Available from: https://elevategreece.Gov.gr/
 Elo S, Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008;62:107–115.
 Evans C. The coronavirus crisis and the technology sector. Business Economics. 2020;55(4):253–266.
[ Fedorowicz J, Gelinas JrUJ, Gogan JL, Williams CB. Strategic alignment of participant motivations in e-government collaborations: The Internet Payment Platform pilot. Government Information Quarterly. 2009;26(1):51–59.
 Gbrich C. Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. 1st ed. London: Sage Publications; 2007. 258 p.
 Georgiopoulou T. Public sector without papers. Athens: Grnet; 2021 [cited 2022 Apr 3]. Available from: https://grnet.gr/2021/03/28/dimosio-choris-chartia/
 Gil-Garcia RJ, Dawes SS, Pardo TA. Digital government and public management research: Finding the crossroads. Public Management Review. 2018;20(5):633–646.
 Greek farms. Athens: Greek Farms; 2022 [cited 2022 Apr 2]. Available from: https://greekfarms.Gov.gr/greekfarms/index_en.html
 Gov.gr: The digital government platform now in operation [Internet]. Athens: EKT; 2022 [cited 2022 Feb 25]. Available from: https://www.ekt.gr/en/news/23919
 Hafseld KH, Hussein B, Rauzy AR. Government inter-organizational, digital transformation projects: Five key lessons learned from a Norwegian case study. Procedia Computer Science. 2022;196:910–919.
 Homburg V, Moody R. Citizens’ social media adoption in Paraguay. Revista de Administração Pública. 2022;55:1077–1100.
 I-agric [Internet]. Athens: Minagric; 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 3]. Available from: http://www.minagric.gr/index.php/el/xrisimewplirofories-2/i-agric-ypaat
 Irani Z, Kamal M. Transforming government: People, process, and policy. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy. 2016.
 Janowski T. Digital government evolution: From transformation to contextualization. Government Information Quarterly. 2015;32(3):221–236.
 Janssen M, Estevez E. Lean government and platform-based governance—Doing more with less. Government Information Quarterly. 2013;30:S1–S8.
 Kane GC, Alavi M, Labianca G, Borgatti SP. What’s different about social media networks? A framework and research agenda. MIS Quarterly. 2014;38(1):275–304.
 Karamalis P, Vasilopoulos A. The digital transformation in public sector as a response to COVID-19 pandemic: The case of Greece. XIV Balkan Conference on Operational Research. 2020.
 Katsonis M, Botros A. Digital government: A primer and professional perspectives. Australian Journal of Public Administration. 2015;74(1):42–52.
 Kemp S. Digital 2022: Greece [Internet]. Singapore: Dataportal; 2022 [cited 2022 Feb 20]. Available from: https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2022-greece
 Klievink B, Bharosa N, Tan YH. The collaborative realization of public values and business goals: Governance and infrastructure of public–private information platforms. Government Information Quarterly. 2016;33:67–79.
 Lee G, Kwak YH. An open government maturity model for social media-based public engagement. Government Information Quarterly. 2012;29(4):492–503.
 Liu SM, Kim Y. Special issue on internet plus government: New opportunities to solve public problems? Government Information Quarterly. 2018;35(1):88–97.
 Lombardo L. Effective implementation of government platforms. Harvard University John F Kennedy School of Government. 2021.
 Lovelock P. Framing policies for the digital economy: Towards policy frameworks in the Asia- Pacific. Singapore: UNDP Global Centre for Public Service Excellence; 2018.
 Lucas P, Fleming J, Bhosale J. The utility of case study as a methodology for work-integrated learning research. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning. 2018;19(3):215–222.
 Malodia S, Dhir A, Mishra M, Bhatti Z A. Future of e-government: An integrated conceptual framework. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2021;173:121102.
 Marino A, Pariso P. Digital government platforms: Issues and actions in Europe during pandemic time. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues. 2021;9(1):462.
 Mayring P. Qualitative content analysis. A Companion to Qualitative Research. 2004;1(2):159–176.
 Mawela T, Ochara NM, Twinomurinzi H. E-government implementation: A reflection on South African municipalities. South African Computer Journal. 2017;29.
 Mégevand M. #GreeceFromHome [Internet]. Athens; 2020 [cited 2022 Apr 26]. Available from: https://www.greece-is.com/news/greecefromhome-new-digitalplatform- brings-best-greece/
 Meiyanti R, Utomo B, Sensuse D, Wahyuni R. e-government challenges in developing countries: A literature review. 2018;1–6.
 Mhlungu NS, Chen JY, Alkema P. The underlying factors of a successful organizational digital transformation. South African Journal of Information Management. 2019;21(1):1–10.
 Miles MB, Huberman AM. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. SAGE; 1994.
 Millard CJ. Cloud computing law (pp. I–IX). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013.
 Neverov K. Participatory governability under development: The institution of citizen participation as the basis for the design of the “Government as a Platform” in developing countries. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on WWW/INTERNET 2020. Virtual Conference. 2020 Nov 18–20; p. 145–149. IADIS Press.
 O’Neil M. Cyberchiefs: Autonomy and authority in online tribes. Pluto Press; 2009.
 O’Reilly T. Government as a platform. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization. 2011;6(1):13–40.
 OT.gr Newsroom. Platform for primary health appointments [Internet]. Athens: OT; 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 30]. Available from: https://www.ot.gr/2022/03/30/englishedition/ minister-of-state-and-digital- governance-there-is-a-platform-for-primaryhealth- appointments-along-the-standards-of-vaccination/
 Pagani M. Digital business strategy and value creation: Framing the dynamic cycle of control points. Mis Quarterly. 2013:617–632.
 Parker G, Van Alstyne MW, Jiang X. Platform ecosystems: How developers invert the firm. Boston University Questrom School of Business Research Paper. 2016:2861574.
 Peña-López I. The OECD digital government policy framework. Six dimensions of a digital government. OECD Public Governance Policy Papers No. 2. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2022.
 Pérez-Morote R, Pontones-Rosa C, Núñez-Chicharro M. The effects of e-government evaluation, trust and the digital divide in the levels of e-government use in European countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2020;154:119973.
 Powers B, Knapp T. Dictionary of nursing theory and research. 3rd ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2006.
 Ranerup A, Henriksen HZ, Hedman J. An analysis of business models in public service platforms. Government Information Quarterly. 2016;33(1):6–14.
 OECD. Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies [Internet]. Paris: OECD; 2014 [cited 2022 Apr 4]. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government/Recommendation-digital-governmentstrategies. pdf
 Rotta MJR, Sell D, Dos Santos Pacheco RC, Yigitcanlar T. Digital commons and citizen coproduction in smart cities: Assessment of Brazilian municipal e-government platforms. Energies. 2019;12(14):2813.
 Sapraz M, Han S. Implicating human values for designing a digital government collaborative platform for environmental issues: A value sensitive design approach. Sustainability. 2021;13(11):6240.
 Seifert JW, Bonham M. The transformative potential of egovernment in transitional democracies. 2004. Available from: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/18924147/the-transformative-potentialof- e-government-in-transitional-
 Senshaw D, Twinomurinzi H. Innovating with government digital platforms in lowincome countries: The dynamic capabilities of Woredas in Ethiopia. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management. 2021;13(4):812–836.
 Senyo PK, Effah J, Osabutey EL. Digital platformization as public sector transformation strategy: A case of Ghana’s paperless port. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2021;162:120387.
 Statistical data [Internet]. Hellenic Republic; 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 20]. Available from: https://www.secdigital.Gov.gr/stats/
 Tan B, Pan SL, Lu X, Huang L. The role of IS capabilities in the development of multi-sided platforms: The digital ecosystem strategy of Alibaba.com. Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 2015;16(4):248–280.
 Templier M, Paré G. A framework for guiding and evaluating literature reviews. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 2015;37(1):6.
 Toomere T, Kamalanathan S, Freudenthal M, Valdma SM, McBride K. Digital government interoperability platform reference architecture. Cybernetica. 2022;D- 2-384.
 Tranfield D, Denyer D, Smart P. Towards a methodology for developing evidenceinformed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management. 2003;14(3):207–222.
 UN E-government Knowledgebase [Internet]. New York: United Nations; 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 30]. Available from: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/enus/ Data/Country-Information/id/67-Greece
 UN Government Survey [Internet]. UN e-government database. New York; 2020 [cited 2022 Feb 21]. Available from: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/enus/ Reports/UN-E- Government-Survey-2020
 Vaismoradi M, Turunen H, Bondas T. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing and Health Sciences. 2013;15(3):398–405.
 Van Gansen K, Valayer C, Allesie D. Digital platforms for public services. Gartner for European Commission. DG Joint Research Centre, B6 - Digital Economy. 2018.
 Vanderbeken Y. Strategic approaches to digital platform security assurance. IGI Global; 2021. Research findings in the domain of business platform models: Defining the practices to design a perfect government business platform model. p. 66–186.
 Wang G, Chen Q, Xie S. Determining the types of internet plus government platform usage behaviour in selected cities of China. The Electronic Library; 2021.
 What is e-me? [Internet]. ITYE-Diofantos. Athens; 2022 [cited 2022 Apr 24]. Available from: https://auth.e-me.edu.gr/?eme=https://e-me.edu.gr/
 When does the platform Gov.gr starts operating? [Internet]. Athens: Aftodioikisi; 2020 [cited 2022 Apr 4]. Available from: https://www.aftodioikisi.gr/ipourgeia/pote-xekinai- leitoyrgia-tis-platformas-gov-gr-poies-ypiresies-toy-dimosioy-tha-perilamvanei/
 Young MM. Implementation of digital era governance: The case of open data in US cities. Public Administration Review. 2020;80(2):305–315.v