The Importance of Organisational Skills to Manage Women's Cooperatives


As one of the economic pillars of Indonesia, cooperatives are expected to be able to take on more roles to support the economy of Indonesia. However, in reality, the development of cooperatives in Indonesia is still lagging compared to other financial institutions. It is presumably because the management still follows a simple structure by relying on the ability of human resources, namely cooperative management. This study aimed to determine human capital and spiritual capital’s effect on women’s cooperatives’ performance in the Jombang district. This study used a quantitative approach. The sample used was 62 women’s cooperatives. The data was collected through questionnaires and various documents about women’s cooperatives in the Jombang district. The analytical tool used to test the hypothesis uses Warp Partial Least Square (Warp PLS) version 7.0. The results showed that there exists a direct influence between human and spiritual capital on the performance of women’s cooperatives in Jombang. Human capital has also been shown to influence the implementation of spiritual capital. Therefore, spiritual capital can also mediate the role of human capital in the performance of cooperatives in Jombang. The results of this study serve as a reference for stakeholders of women’s cooperatives in Jombang to provide guidance and training to managers of women’s cooperatives in Jombang, especially in the form of improving practical skills for daily cooperative management.

Keywords: Human capital, spiritual capital, women’s cooperative performance, Jombang

[1] Wediawati B, Setiawati R. Spiritual intermediation in Islamic microfinance: Evidence from Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Conference, Integrated Microfinance Management for Sustainable Community Development (IMM). 2016;7:155–161.

[2] Ismanto H. Analysis of the effect of company size, book-to-market value, and beta on stock returns on the IDX. Journal of Economics & Education. 2011;8.

[3] Pratiwi NRP. Pengaruh beban kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan melalui variabel stres kerja pada Koperasi Simpan Pinjam (KSP) Lohjinawe Rembang [Doctoral dissertation]. Indonesia: Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim; 2016.

[4] Drucker PF. The rise of the knowledge society. The Wilson Quarterly. 1993;17:52–72.

[5] Bontis N. Assessing knowledge assets: A review of the models used to measure intellectual capital. International Journal of Technology Management. 2001;3:41–60.

[6] Roos J, Edvinsson L, Dragonetti NC. Intellectual capital: Navigating the new business landscape. Germany: Springer; 1997.

[7] Bueno E, Salmador MP, Rodríguez Ó, De Castro GM. Internal logic of intellectual capital: A biological approach. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2006;7:394–405.

[8] Daud S, Yusoff WFW. How intellectual capital mediates the relationship between knowledge management processes and organisational performance. African Journal of Business Management. 2011;5:2607–2617.

[9] Dumay J, Roslender R. Utilising narrative to improve the relevance of intellectual capital. Journal of Accounting & Organisational Change. 2013;9:248–279.

[10] Kamukama N, Ahiauzu A, Ntayi JM. Intellectual capital and performance: Testing interaction effects. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2010;11:554–574.

[11] Khalique M, Isa AHBM, Nassir Shaari JA, Ageel A. Challenges faced by the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia: An intellectual capital perspective. International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3:398.

[12] Korac Kakabadse N, Kouzmin A, Kakabadse A. Spirituality and leadership praxis. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 2002;17:165–182.

[13] Parrish-Harra CE. The new dictionary of spiritual thought. Atlanta, USA: Sparrow Hawk Press; 2002.

[14] Verter B. Spiritual capital: Theorising religion with Bourdieu against Bourdieu. Sociological Theory. 2003;21:150–174.

[15] Ismail MB. The influence of intellectual capital on the performance of Telekom Malaysia [PhD Thesis]. Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; 2005.

[16] Beekun RI, Badawi JA. Balancing ethical responsibility among multiple organisational stakeholders: The Islamic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics. 2005;60:131–145.

[17] Ruben R, Heras J. Social capital, governance and performance of Ethiopian coffee cooperatives. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 2012;83:463–484.

[18] Hanisch M, Rommel J, Müller M. The cooperative yardstick revisited: panel evidence from the European dairy sectors. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 2013;11:151–162.

[19] Hernández-Espallardo M, Arcas-Lario N, Marcos-Matás G. Farmers’ satisfaction and intention to continue membership in agricultural marketing co-operatives: neoclassical versus transaction cost considerations. European Review of Agricultural Economics. 2013;40:239–260.

[20] Figueiredo V, Franco M. Wine cooperatives as a form of social entrepreneurship: Empirical evidence about their impact on society. Land Use Policy. 2018;79:812–821.

[21] Kaplan, R. S. (2009). Conceptual foundations of the balanced scorecard. Handbooks of management accounting research, 3, 1253-1269.

[22] Reed KK. The dynamics of intellectual capital. Connecticut, USA: University of Connecticut; 2000.

[23] Daud S, Yusoff WFW. The influence of soft and hard TQM factors on knowledge management: Perspective from Malaysia. International Conference on Management and Service Science [Internet]; 2011 May (Vol. 8, pp. 17–22). Singapore: IACSIT Press; 2011.

[24] Seleim A, Ashour A, Bontis N. Intellectual capital in Egyptian software firms. The Learning Organization. 2004;11:332–346.

[25] Ali AJ, Al Owaihan A. Islamic work ethic: A critical review. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. 2008;15:5–19.

[26] Amrizah K, Rashidah AR. Intellectual capital profiles: Empirical evidence of Malaysian companies Kamaluddin & Rahman. International Review of Business Research Papers. 2013;9:83–101.

[27] Ismail S, Maasum TNRTM. The effects of cooperative learning in enhancing writing performance. SOLLS INTEC 09 International Conference [Internet]; 2009. Putrajaya, Malaysia: University Kebangsaan; 2009.

[28] Nwankwo F, Ewuim N, Asoya NP. Role of cooperatives in small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) development in Nigeria: Challenges and the way forward. African Research Review. 2012;6:140–156.