Strategies to Improve Entrepreneurial Behavior in Online Selling Through Advances in Entrepreneurial Characteristics, Intellectual Agility and Business Environment


This study aims to examine the effect of entrepreneurial characteristics, intellectual agility and business environment on entrepreneurial behaviours in selling online. This study used a quantitative approach. The population in this study were embroidery entrepreneurs in Pasuruan, East Java, who do business online. The sample used in this study was 180 respondents, and the sampling technique was purposive sampling. The data was obtained through a questionnaire. The results showed that entrepreneurship, intellectual agility and the business environment significantly affected entrepreneurial behaviour in selling online. The business environment weakens but does not significantly influence the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics and intellectual agility on entrepreneurial behaviour. Intellectual agility can partially mediate the influence of entrepreneurial characteristics in selling online. The implication of this research is, that for embroidery business actors, it is hoped that they will be able to carry out entrepreneurial behavior through maximizing their entrepreneurial characteristics and intellectual agility

Keywords: entrepreneurial characteristics, intellectual agility, business environment, online entrepreneurial behaviour

[1] Abu-Rumman A. Transformational leadership and human capital within the disruptive business environment of academia. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues. 2021;13:178–187.

[2] Ahammad MF, Glaister KW, Gomes E. Strategic agility and human resource management. Human Resource Management Review. 2020;30:100700.

[3] Akkaya B, Tabak A. The link between organizational agility and leadership: A research in science parks. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 2020;19:1–17.

[4] Al-Gahtani S. The applicability of TAM outside North America: An empirical test in the United Kingdom. Information Resources Management Journal (IRMJ). 2001;14:37–46.

[5] Alma B. Kewirausahaan, Edisi Revisi, Cetakan Ke-21. Bandung: Alfabeta; 2016.

[6] Almunawar MN, Auzzali A, Oseli NAH, Ariff WZAMZ. E-commerce adoption among micro, small, and medium enterprises in Brunei Darussalam. International Journal of E-Business Research (IJEBR). 2022;18:1–8.

[7] AlNuaimi BK, Singh SK, Ren S, Budhwar P, Vorobyev D. Mastering digital transformation: The nexus between leadership, agility, and digital strategy. Journal of Business Research. 2022;145:636–648.

[8] Al-Omoush KS, Simón-Moya V, Sendra-García J. The impact of social capital and collaborative knowledge creation on e-business proactiveness and organizational agility in responding to the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. 2020;5:279–288.

[9] Al-Omoush KS. Understanding the impact of intellectual capital on E-business entrepreneurial orientation and competitive agility: an empirical study. Information Systems Frontiers. 2021;24:549–562.

[10] Al-Omoush KS, Simón-Moya V, Sendra-García J. The impact of social capital and collaborative knowledge creation on e-business proactiveness and organizational agility in responding to the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. 2020;5.

[11] Alos-Simo L, Verdu-Jover AJ, Gomez-Gras JM. How transformational leadership facilitates e-business adoption. Industrial Management & Data Systems. 2017;117:382– 397.

[12] Al-Qirim N. The adoption of eCommerce communications and applications technologies in small businesses in New Zealand. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. 2007;6:462–473.

[13] Andzulis JM, Panagopoulos NG, Rapp A. A review of social media and implications for the sales process. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 2012;32:305– 316.

[14] Bontis N, Keow WC, Richardson S. Intellectual capital and business performance in Malaysian industries. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2000;1:85–100.

[15] Bordonaba Juste V, Lucia Palacios L, Polo Redondo Y. The influence of organizational factors on ebusiness use: Analysis of firm size. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 2012;30.

[16] Bueno E, Salmador MP, Rodriguez O, De Castro GM. Internal logic of intellectual capital: A biological approach. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2006;7:394–405.

[17] Chatzoglou P, Chatzoudes D. Factors affecting e-business adoption in SMEs: An empirical research. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 2016;29:327– 358.

[18] Coltman TR, Devinney TM, Midgley DF. e-Business strategy and firm performance: a latent class assessment of the drivers and impediments to success. Journal of Information Technology. 2007;22:87–101.

[19] Cricelli L, Grimaldi M. A dynamic view of knowledge and information: a stock and flow based methodology. International Journal of Management and Decision Making. 2008;9:686.

[20] Dabić M, Simić SN, Potocan M, Slavković V, Nedelko M. Intellectual agility and innovation in micro and small businesses: The mediating role of entrepreneurial leadership. Journal of Business Research. 2021;123:683–695.

[21] Doz YL, Kosonen M. Embedding strategic agility: A leadership agenda for accelerating business model renewal. Long Range Planning. 2010;43:370–382.

[22] El-Haddadeh R. Digital innovation dynamics influence on organisational adoption: the case of cloud computing services. Information Systems Frontiers. Aug;22:985– 999.

[23] Gary G, Munib K, Shaoming Z. The effects of e-commerce drivers on export marketing strategy. Journal of International Marketing. 2007;15:30–57.

[24] Gatignon H, Robertson TS. Technology diffusion: An empirical test of competitive effects. Journal of Marketing. 1989;53:35–49.

[25] Gholamian MR, Akhavan P, Mohammadipour F, Namvar M. Prioritization structural capital indicators in Iranian e-business; 2010 Nov 24–27; Ankara, Turkey. Management International Conference (MIC2010); 2010. p. 297–309.

[26] Khalique M, Isa AHM, Bin Shaari JAN, Hassan MKH. Constructing an index of entrepreneurial competencies and intellectual capital for ICT SMEs in Malaysia; 2014 Aug 20–21; Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The 6th International Borneo Business Conference; 2014.

[27] Lai F, Wang J, Hsieh CT, Chen JCV. On network externalities, ebusiness adoption and information asymmetry. Industrial Management & Data Systems. 2007;5:728– 746.

[28] Lambing P, Kuehl CR. Entrepreneurship. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall Inc.; 2000.

[29] Ling YH, Jaw BS. Entrepreneurial leadership, human capital management, and global competitiveness: An empirical study of Taiwanese MNCs. Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management. 2011;2:117–135.

[30] Longenecker JG, Moore CW, Petty JW. Small business management, an entrepreneurial enphasis. Cincinnati: South Western Publishing Company; 1994.

[31] McGuckin F. Ide-ide besar untuk mengembangkan usaha kecil anda. Jakarta: Abdi TanduR; 2006.

[32] Namvar M, Khalilzadeh P. Exploring the role of intellectual capital in the development of ebusiness models: Evidence from the Iranian carpet industry. International Journal of Commerce and Management. 2013;23:97–112.

[33] Nusron A. Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Jiwa Kewirausahaan. e-Jurnal Kewirausahaan. 2017;3.

[34] Oliveira T, Martins MF. Understanding ebusiness adoption across industries in European countries. Industrial Management & Data Systems. 2010;110:1337–1354.

[35] Parker CM, Castleman T. Small firm ebusiness adoption: a critical analysis of theory. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 2009;22:167–182.

[36] Pavlou PA, El Sawy OA. The “third hand”: IT-enabled competitive advantage in turbulence through improvisational capabilities. Information Systems Research. 2010;21:443–471.

[37] Pickernell D, Jones P, Packham G, Thomas B, White G, Willis R. E-commerce trading activity and the SME sector: An FSB perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 2013;20:866–888.

[38] Raymond L, Bergeron F, Croteau AM, St-Pierre J. Entrepreneurial orientation and e-business capabilities of manufacturing SMEs: an absorptive capacity lens. 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 2015:3740–3749.

[39] Sari SA, Ahmad NH. Connecting the dots: Linking entrepreneurial leadership and strategic agility towards SME competitiveness. Vision. 2022.

[40] Singh S, Pathak RD, Shee H, Kazmi A, Parker D. Interplay between entrepreneurial characteristics, organisational structure, corporate culture and SME performance: Empirical results from Fiji Islands. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 2013;18:229–246.

[41] Thong JY, Yap CS. CEO characteristics, organizational characteristics and information technology adoption in small businesses. Omega. 1995;23:429–442.

[42] Turban E, King D, Lee J, Viehland D. Electronic Commerce: A managerial perspective. New York: Pearson Education; 2004.

[43] Ustüner T, Godes D. Better sales networks. Harvard Business Review. 2006;84:102– 112.

[44] Winardi J. Entrepreneur dan entrepreneurship, Cetakan ke-5. Jakarta: Kencana; 2017.

[45] Zhu K, Kraemer KL, Xu S. The process of innovation assimilation by firms in different countries: a technology diffusion perspective on e-business. Management Science. 2006;52:1557–1576.