Geography Virtual Reality for Learning About Ecotourism and Rural Sustainability
Tourism has an essential role in economic development through improving people’s welfare. However, tourism activities are vulnerable to global issues, one of which is the COVID-19 pandemic. Social restrictions on economic activity have implications for the sustainability of tourism. One effective strategy to maintain tourism sustainability in regional development can be achieved through education channels by packaging the concept of tourism into virtual reality (VR) 3600-assisted learning materials. This study aimed to develop VR 360∘ media in supporting geography learning on sustainable ecotourism. This was development research using the PLOMP model, which consisted of 3 stages: (1) preliminary research; (2) prototype design and development; and (3) evaluation. The results showed that the VR 3600 media helped the student’s learning process actively and independently through interaction with 3600 panoramic projections and multimedia. Immersive learning experiences involving complex thinking and contextual reflection were formed through the VR 360∘-assisted learning activities with learning outcomes of a) information literacy, b) exploration, and c) reflection on the content of sustainable ecotourism. Learning activities engaged through the virtual environment are expected to foster a good understanding in the student environment of the importance of managing and developing ecotourism in supporting rural sustainability.
Keywords: mobile immersive, geography, virtual reality 360∘, ecotourism, rural sustainability
 Birendra KC, Dhungana A, Dangi TB. Tourism and the sustainable development goals: Stakeholders’ perspectives from Nepal. Tourism Management Perspectives. 2021;38:100882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2021.100822.
 Croes R, Ridderstaat J, Bąk M, Zientara P. Tourism specialization, economic growth, human development and transition economies: The case of Poland. Tourism Management. 2021;82:104181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104181.
 Rero LS, Sanam SR. Amenity Readiness of Rural Tourism in Fatumnasi Village East Nusa Tenggara Towards Sustainability. Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Technology on Social Science (ICAST-SS 2020). 2021. p. 215–20. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210424.041.
 Zaman U, Aktan M. Examining residents’ cultural intelligence, place image and foreign tourist attractiveness: A mediated-moderation model of support for tourism development in Cappadocia (Turkey). Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 2021;46:393–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.01.017.
 Sobaih AEE, Elshaer I, Hasanein AM, Abdelaziz AS. Responses to COVID-19: The role of performance in the relationship between small hospitality enterprises’ resilience and sustainable tourism development. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2021;94:102824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.01.017.
 Marek W. Will the consequences of covid-19 trigger a redefining of the role of transport in the development of sustainable tourism?. Sustainibility (Switzerland). 2021;13(4):1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041887.
 Sheller M. Reconstructing tourism in the Caribbean: connecting pandemic recovery, climate resilience and sustainable tourism through mobility justice. Journal Sustainanble Tourism. 2020; 29(9):1436-1449. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1791141.
 Bekun FV, Adedoyin FF, Balsalobre-Lorente D, Driha OM. The Validation of the Tourism-Led Growth Hypothesis in the Next Leading Economies: Accounting for the Relevant Role of Education on Carbon Emissions Reduction?. Strategies in Sustainable Tourism, Economic Growth and Clean Energy. 2021:249-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59675-0_14.
 Ensiyawatin AZ, Sumarmi S, Astina IK. Development of Supplementary Contextual Teaching Materials Based on Ecotourism and Natural Resource Management. Institute of Physics Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;747(1):012007. IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/747/1/012007.
 Wang J, Liu Z. A bibliometric analysis on rural studies in human geography and related disciplines. Scientometrics. 2014;101(1):39-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192- 014-1388-2.
 Fengwei A, Wang N. Integration of urban-rural planning and human geography for online education under the impact of COVID-19. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems. 2020;39(6):8847-8855. https://doi.org/10.3233/JIFS-189282.
 Fang WT, Lien CY, Huang YW, Han G, Shyu GS, Chou JY, et al. Environmental literacy on ecotourism: A study on student knowledge, attitude, and behavioral intentions in China and Taiwan. Sustainability. 2018;10(6):1886. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061886.
 Moseley M. Rural Development: Principles and Practice. Rural Development: Principles and Practice. Sage Publication: 2012.
 Lv Z, Li X. Virtual reality assistant technology for learning primary geography. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). International Conference on Web- Based Learning. 2016:1-40. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32865- 2_4.
 Jang S, Vitale JM, Jyung RW, Black JB. Direct manipulation is better than passive viewing for learning anatomy in a three-dimensional virtual reality environment. Computers and Education. 2017;106:150-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.009.
 Shen C wen, Ho J tsung, Ly PTM, Kuo T chang. Behavioural intentions of using virtual reality in learning: perspectives of acceptance of information technology and learning style. Virtual Reality. 2019;23(3):313-324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018- 0348-1.
 Ghanbarzadeh R, Ghapanchi AH. Uncovering educational outcomes deriving from students’ acceptance and involvement with 3D virtual worlds. Education and Information Technologies. 2021;26(1):311-337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639- 020-10272-7.
 Adnan AHM. From interactive teaching to immersive learning: Higher Education 4.0 via 360-degree videos and virtual reality in Malaysia. Institute Of Physics Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020;917(1):012023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/917/1/012023.
 Tan S, Wiebrands M, O’Halloran K, Wignell P. Analysing student engagement with 360-degree videos through multimodal data analytics and user annotations. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 2020; 29(5):593-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2020.1835708.
 Vergara D, Extremera J, Rubio MP, Dávila LP. Meaningful learning through virtual reality learning environments: A case study in materials engineering. Applied Sciences (Switzerland). 2019;9(21): 4625. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214625.
 Dwi Rohmadiani L, Mochamad Shofwan, Suning. Penguatan Peningkatan Kapasitas Masyarakat Dalam Pengelolaan Desa Wisata Berbasis Pengurangan Resiko Bencana Di Desa Pujon Kidul Kabupaten Malang. Jurnal Abadimas Adi Buana. 2020;4(1):1-6.
 Agfianto T, Antara M, Suardana IW. Dampak Ekonomi Pengembangan Community Based Tourism Terhadap Masyarakat Lokal Di Kabupaten Malang (Studi Kasus Destinasi Wisata Cafe Sawah Pujon Kidul). Jurnal Master Pariwisata ( JUMPA). 2019;5(2):259-282.
 Plomp & Nienke. Introduction to Educational Design Research: An Introduction. Instructional Education Design Research. 2013;11-50.
 Budiman A, Samani M, Rusijono R, Setyawan WH, Nurdyansyah N. The Development of Direct-Contextual Learning: A New Model on Higher Education. International Journal of Higher Education. 2020;10(2):15-26. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v10n2p15.
 Subhi MA, Nurjanah N, Kosasih U, Rahman SA. Design of distance lectures in mathematics education with the utilization of the integration of Zoom and YouTube application. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020;1663(1):012058. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1663/1/012058.
 Osadchyi V V., Chemerys HY, Osadcha KP, Kruhlyk VS, Koniukhov SL, Kiv AE. Conceptual model of learning based on the combined capabilities of augmented and virtual reality technologies with adaptive learning systems. Central Europe Workshop Proceedings. 2020;2731:328-340.
 Li K, Wang S. Development and application of VR course resources based on embedded system in open education. Microprocessors and Microsystems. 2021;83:103989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpro.2021.103989.
 Harrington CM, Kavanagh DO, Quinlan JF, Ryan D, Dicker P, O’Keeffe D, et al. Development and evaluation of a trauma decision-making simulator in Oculus virtual reality. American Journal of Surgery. 2018;215(1):42-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.02.011.
 Sun SY, Peng LH. Study of the virtual reality education and digitalization in China. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020;1456(1):012042. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1456/1/012042.
 Ruiz-Cantisani MI, Lima-Sagui FDC, Aceves-Campos N, Ipina-Sifuentes R, Flores EGR. Virtual reality as a tool for active learning and student engagement: Industrial engineering experience. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON. 2020:1031-1037. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON45650.2020.9125225.
 Mystakidis S. Distance Education Gamification in Social Virtual Reality: A Case Study on Student Engagement. 11th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications, IISA 2020. 2020:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA50023.2020.9284417.
 Xu C, Oberman T, Aletta F, Tong H, Kang J. Ecological Validity of Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) Techniques for the Perception of Urban Sound Environments. Vol. 3, Acoustics. 2021;3(1):11-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3010003.