Young Creative Entrepreneur Pathways: COVID-19 and the Creative Industry Sectors


The main purpose of this paper was to propose a strategic conceptual framework using the Theory of Planned Behavior in the context of entrepreneurship intention among young creative entrepreneurs. The dynamic environment of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the cultural resilience of art and design. The present study identified eight hypotheses for pathways of strategic direction for young creative entrepreneurs within and after the pandemic. The conceptual framework developed examines the influence of entrepreneurship education on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, this study also outlines guidance for young creative entrepreneurs based on attitudes toward entrepreneurship intention, entrepreneurship self-identity, subjective norms surrounding entrepreneurship intention, perceived behavioral control, and entrepreneurship commitment and enactment.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, Theory of Planned Behavior, entrepreneurship self-identity, entrepreneurship plan enactment, entrepreneurship commitment

1] Bosma N, Kelley D. Global entrepreneurship monito. Chile: Gráfica Andes; 2019.
[2] Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education. Graph of the number of universities in Indonesia. 2019. Available from:
[3] Indonesian Central Statistics Agency. The open unemployment rate was 7.07 percent. BPD; 2020 Nov 5. Available from:–tingkat-pengangguran-terbuka–tpt–sebesar-7-07-persen.html
[4] Ahadi S, Kasraie S. Contextual factors of entrepreneurship intention in manufacturing SMEs: The case study of Iran. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 2020;27(4):633-657.
[5] Hermanto B, Suryanto. Entrepreneurship ecosystem policy in Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2017;8(1):110-115.
[6] Aboobaker N, RD. Human capital and entrepreneurial intentions: Do entrepreneurship education and training provided by universities add value? On the Horizon. 2020;28(2):73-83.
[7] Aldianto L, Nggadwita G, Umbara AN. Entrepreneurship education program as value creation: Empirical findings of universities in Bandung, Indonesia. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management. 2018;9(3):296-309.
[8] Krueger Jr NF. What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2007;31(1):123-138.
[9] Biraglia A, Kadile V. The role of entrepreneurial passion and creativity in developing entrepreneurial intentions: Insights from American homebrewers. Journal of Small Business Management. 2017;55(1):170-188.
[10] Bird BJ, West GP. Time and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1997;22:5-9.
[11] Schumpeter J. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York: Harper & Row; 1934.
[12] Scarborough NM, Cornwall JR. Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson; 2019.
[13] Brieger S, Gielnik M. Understanding the gender gap in immigrant entrepreneurship: A multi-country study of immigrants’ embeddedness in economic, social, and institutional contexts. Small Business Economics. 2020;54(219):1-25.
[14] Terán-Yépez E, Marín-Carrillo GM, Casado-Belmonte MP, Capobianco-Uriarte MM. Sustainable entrepreneurship: Review of its evolution and new trends. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;252:1-21.
[15] Su X, Liu S, Zhang S, Liu L. To be happy: A case study of entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial process from the perspective of positive psychology. Sustainability. 2020;12(584):1-27.
[16] Stokes D, Wilson N, Mador M. Entrepreneurship. Hampshire: South-Western Cengage Learning; 2010.
[17] Majid I, Koe W. Sustainable entrepreneurship (SE): A revised model based on triple bottom line (TBL). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2012;2(6):293-310.
[18] Ardichvili A, Cardozo R, Ray S. A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing. 2003;18(1):105-123.
[19] Harms R, Schulz A, Kraus S, Fink M. The conceptualisation of ’opportunity’ in strategic management research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing. 2009;1(1):57-71.
[20] Fayolle A, Gailly B, Lassas-Clerc N. Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: A new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training. 2006;30(9):701-720. [21] Lian F, Rodriguez-Cohard J, Rueda-Cantuche J. Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: A role for education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2011;7(2):293-310.
[22] Bae TJ, Qian S, Miao C, Fiet JO. The relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions: A meta-analytic review. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2014;38(2):217-254.
[23] Ahmed T, Chandran V, Klobas J, Liñán F, Kokkalis P. Entrepreneurship education programmes: How learning, inspiration and resources affect intentions for new venture creation in a developing economy. The International Journal of Management Education. 2020;18(1):1-13.
[24] Rengiah P, Sentosa I. Entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions among Malaysian university students: Developing a hypothesised model through structural equation modelling. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2015;9(7):703-710.
[25] Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991;50(2):179-211.
[26] Fayolle A, Gailly B. Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education: A methodology and three experiments from French engineering schools. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2009.
[27] Mueller S. Increasing entrepreneurial intention: Effective entrepreneurship course characteristics. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 2011;13(1):55-74.
[28] Lian F, Fayolle A. A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: Citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2015;11:907-93
[29] Fretschner M, Weber S. Measuring and understanding the effects of entrepreneurial awareness education. Journal of Small Business Management. 2013;51(3):410-428.
[30] Fayolle A, Liñán F. The future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research. 2014;67(5):663-666.
[31] Karimi S, Biemans HJA, Lans T, Chizari M, Mulder M. The impact of entrepreneurship education: A study of Iranian students’ entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity identification. Journal of Small Business Management. 2016;54(1):187-209.
[32] Souitaris V, Zerbinati S, Al-Laham A. Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing. 2007;22(4):566- 591.
[33] Kautonen T, van Gelderen M, Fink M. Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2015;39(3):655-674.
[34] Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist. 1982;37(2):122-147.
[35] Florin J, Karri R, Rossiter N. Fostering entrepreneurial drive in business education: An attitudinal approach. Journal of Management Education. 2016;31(1):17-42.
[36] Alam MZ, Kousar S, Rehman CA. Role of entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour: Theory of planned behaviour extension on engineering students in Pakistan. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research. 2019;9(1):1-20.
[37] Stryker S, Burke PJ. The past, present, and future of identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly. 2000;63(4):284-297.
[38] Murnieks C, Mosakowski E, Cardon M. Pathways of passion: Identity centrality, passion, and behavior among entrepreneurs. Journal of Management. 2014;40(6):1583- 1606.
[39] Woolfolk A. Educational psychology. 14th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson; 2019.
[40] Ekinci Y, Wilson S, Slade A. An exploration of entrepreneurs’ identities and business growth. Business Horizons. 2020;63(3):391-401.
[41] Obschonka M, Stuetzer M, Brixy U, Sternberg R, Cantner U. Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities. Small Business Economics. 2014;42(2):221-244.
[42] Alsos GA, Clausen TH, Hytti U, Solvoll S. Entrepreneurs’ social identity and the preference of causal and effectual behaviours in start-up processes. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. 2016;28(3-4):234-258.
[43] Brändle L, Berger ES, Golla S, Kuckertz, Andreas. I am what I am - How nascent entrepreneurs’ social identity affects their entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Journal of Business Venturing Insights. 2018;9:17-23.
[44] Ferreira AD, Loiola E, Gondim S. Motivations, business planning, and risk management: Entrepreneurship among university students. RAI Revista de Administração e Inovação. 2017;14(2):140-150.
[45] Bagozzi R, Dholakia U, Basuroy S. How effortful decisions get enacted: The motivating role of decision processes, desires, and anticipated emotions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 2003;16(4):273-295.
[46] Mat N, Ghani N, Abdullah F, Musa R. The determinants of goal realization and the significant role of self- efficacy in the Malaysian franchise industry. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research. 2018;13(2):12-19.
[47] Santos EA, Silva CE. Business plan models and their relevance to the sustainability of micro and small business. Revista Brasilia de Administracao Cientifica. 2012;3(1):37- 62
[48] Abosag I, Lee JW. The formation of trust and commitment in business relationships in the Middle East: Understanding Et-Moone relationships. International Business Review. 2013;22(3):602-614.
[49] Javalgi RG, Todd PR. Entrepreneurial orientation, management commitment, and human capital: The internationalization of SMEs in India. Journal of Business Research. 2011;64(9):1004-1010.
[50] Ciasullo MV, Troisi O. Sustainable value creation in SMEs: A case study. The TQM Journal. 2013;25(1):44-61.
[51] Antoni G, Grimalda G. Groups and trust: Experimental evidence on the Olson and Putnam hypotheses. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics. 2016;61:38- 54.