Social Support and Loneliness as Predictors of Depression in Early Adolescents in Palu City


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of social support and loneliness on depression in early adolescents in Palu City. This study employed a quantitative descriptive correlational approach. 100 early adolescents in Palu City were recruited through quota sampling techniques. The research instrument used was a psychological measurement scale comprised of three sub-scales measuring social support, loneliness, and depression. The author adapted the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support created by Zimet . for the loneliness scale, and the R-UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 created by Russell for the depression scale. According to the results, there was a significant concurrent effect of social support and loneliness on depression, with an R-squared value of 37.7%. Social support explained 11% of depression, while loneliness explained 26.7%.

Keywords: social support, loneliness, depression, early adolescent

[1] Beck AT, Alford BA. Depression: Causes and treatment. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press; 2009.

[2] World Health Organization. World health statistics 2012. France : World Health Organization; 2012.

[3] World Health Organization. Depression and other common mental disorders. Switzerland : World Health Organization; 2017.

[4] Marcotte D. Irrational beliefs and depression in adolescence. Journal of Adolesence. 2002;31:935–948.

[5] Angold A, Erkanli A, Silberg J, Eaves L, Costello EJ. Depression scale scores in 8- 17-year-olds: Effects of age and gender. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2002;43(8):1052–1063.

[6] Peltzer K, Pengpid S. High prevalence of depressive symptoms in a national sample of adults in Indonesia: Childhood adversity, sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviour. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2018 March; 33: 52-59. doi :

[7] Sugianto D. Menilik prevalensi gejala depresi di Indonesia - Into the light Indonesia. 2018 Aug 28. Available from: gejala-depresi-di-indonesia/

[8] Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). Badan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan kementrian RI tahun . 2018. Jakarta : Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Badang Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

[9] Dwi A. Siswa mts di kediri depresi berat diduga karena ditegur guru soal tugas – Into detik news. 2020 Des 22. Kediri: Detik News. Available form: berat-diduga-karena-ditegur-guru-soal-tugas

[10] Camara M, Bacigalupe G, Padilla P. The role of social support in adolescents: Are you helping me or stressing me out? International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 2017;22(2):123–136.

[11] Dafaalla M, Farah A, Bashir S et al. Depression, anxiety, and stress in Sudanese medical students: A cross-sectional study on role of quality of life and social support. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016;4(13):937-942. doi: 10.12691/education-4-13-4 .

[12] Kugbey N, Boadi SO, Atefoe EA. The influence of social support on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among students in Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;6(25):135-140.

[13] Humenny G, Grygiel P, Dolata R, Świtaj P. Peer network status and depressive symptoms among early adolescents: Testing the mediating effects of metaperception and loneliness. School Mental Health. 2021;13(2):250–265.

[14] Cacioppo JT, Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Thisted RA. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging. 2006;21(1):140–151. doi:

[15] Baron RA, Byrne D. Psikologi social. 6th ed. Jakarta: Erlangga; 2005.

[16] Friedman, Marilyn M, Vicky RB. Buku ajar keperawatan keluarga: Riset teori & praktik. 5th ed. Jakarta: EGC; 2010.

[17] Kieling C, Adewuya A, Fisher HL, et al. Identifying depression early in adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2019;3(4):211–213.

[18] Son SE, Kirchner JT. Depression in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Nov 15 ;62(10):2297-308, 2311–2.

[19] Milin R, Walker S, Chow J. Major depressive disorder in adolescence: A brief review of the recent treatment literature. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;48(9):600–606.

[20] Santrock JW. Adolesence. Perkembangan remaja. 6th ed. Jakarta:Erlangga; 2003.

[21] Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1998;52(1): 30-41. doi:

[22] Smet B. Psikologi kesehatan. Jakarta:PT Grasindo Persada; 1994.

[23] Cohen SE, Syme S. Social support and health. London:Academic Press; 1985.

[24] Myers, DG. Psychology In everyday life. New York:Worth Publishers; 2012.

[25] Miller RS, Perlman D, Brhem SS. Intimate relationship. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

[26] Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine. 2000;25(24):3186–3191.

[27] Li J, Yao M, Liu H. From social support to adolescents’ subjective well-being: The mediating role of emotion regulation and prosocial behavior and gender difference. Child Indicators Research. 2021;14(1):77–93. 020-09755-3

[28] Von Soest T, Luhmann M, Gerstorf D. The development of loneliness through adolescence and young adulthood: Its nature, correlates, and midlife outcomes. Developmental Psychology. 2020;56(10):1919–1934.

[29] Faradhiga YA. Pengaruh dukungan sosial, loneliness, dan trait kepribadian terhadap gejala depresi narapidana remaja di lembaga pemasyarakatan. UINJKT.AC.ID. 2015 Sep 22. Available from:

[30] Eagle DE, Hybels CF, Proeschold-Bell RJ. Perceived social support, received social support, and depression among clergy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 2019;36(7):2055–2073.

[31] Bintang AZ, Mandagi AM. Kejadian depresi pada remaja menurut dukungan sosial di kabupaten jember: Depression incidence in adolescents according to social support in Jember Regency. Journal of Community Mental Health and Public Policy. 2021;3(2):92–101.

[32] Swami V, Tomas CP, Aishvarya S, Maniam T. General health mediates the relationship between loneliness, life satisfaction and depression: A study with Malaysia medical students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42(1):161–166 . doi: 10.1007/s00127-006-0140-5

[33] Taylor SE, Peplau LA, Sears DO. Psikologi social. 12th ed. Jakarta:Kencana; 2012.

[34] Russell D, La P, Ce C. The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal Pers Social Psychology. 1980 Sep;39(3):472- 80. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.39.3.472.

[35] Dafnaz HK, Effendy E. Hubungan kesepian dengan masalah psikologis dan gejala gangguan somatis pada remaja. SCRIPTA SCORE Scientific Medical Journal. 2020;2(1):6–13.

[36] Cavanaugh AM, Buehler C. Adolescent loneliness and social anxiety: The role of multiple sources of support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 2016;33(2):149–170.

[37] Kim YK, Okumu M, Small E, Nikolova SP, Mengo C. The association between school bullying victimization and substance use among adolescents in Malawi: The mediating effect of loneliness. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2020;32(5):20170229.

[38] Rueger SY, Malecki CK, Demaray MK. Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2010;39(1):47–61.

[39] Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory (BDI-II). London: Pearson; 1996.