Influence of Risk Perception and Trust in Government on Vaccination in Indonesia


The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the perception of risk and of trust in the government on people’s decision to get vaccinated. 329 people from all over Indonesia participated. The research instrument used was the scale of risk perception, scale of trust in the government and scale of vaccination. The scales were distributed online via social media for 10 days in June. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the data on the correlations between risk perception and vaccination and between trust in government and vaccination. There was a significant correlation between risk perception and vaccination (r = 0.361; p < 0.05). Likewise, there was a correlation between trust in government and vaccination (r = 0.436; p < 0.05). A multiple correlation test was used to test the correlation simultaneously resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.511 (p < 0.05) meaning that there was a simultaneous correlation between risk perception and trust in the government in the decision to vaccinate.

Keywords: risk perception, trust in government, vaccination taking, Indonesia

[1] Winastya KP. Kilas balik pertama kali kasus Covid-19 muncul di RI, Diumumkan Langsung Presiden. Merdeka.Com. 2021 March 2. Available from: 19-muncul-di-ri-diumumkan-langsung-presiden.html

[2] Peta Sebaran COVID-19. Covid19.Go.Id. 2021 March 1. Available from:

[3] Ophinni Y, Hasibuan AS Widhani A, et al. COVID-19 vaccines: Current status and implication for use in Indonesia. Acta Medica Indonesiana. 2020;52(4):388.

[4] Program vaksinasi COVID-19 mulai dilakukan, presiden orang pertama penerima suntikan vaksin COVID-19. Direktorat Jendral P2P. 2021 January 13. Available from: pertama-penerima-suntikan-vaksin-covid-19/

[5] WHO. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance survey in Indonesia—2020. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2020 November. Available from : survey-en-12-11-2020final.pdf

[6] Allen JD, Othus MKD, Shelton RC et al. Parental decision making about the HPV Vaccine. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 2010;19(9):2187–2198.

[7] Shahrabani S, Benzion U, Yom Din G. Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2009;10(2):227–231.

[8] Cheng P-J, Huang S-Y, Shaw S-W, et al. Factors influencing women’s decisions regarding pertussis vaccine: A decision-making study in the Postpartum Pertussis Immunization Program of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Vaccine. 2010;28(34):5641– 5647.

[9] Grantz KH, Claudot P, Kambala M, et al. Factors influencing participation in an Ebola vaccine trial among front-line workers in Guinea. Vaccine. 2019;37(48):7165–7170.

[10] Marlow LAV, Waller J, Wardle J. Trust and experience as predictors of HPV vaccine acceptance. Human Vaccines. 2007;3(5):171–175.

[11] Suhanti IY, Noorrizki RD, Pambudi KS. Risk perception of Covid 19. KnE Social Sciences. Malang: International Conference Psychology. 2021:139-144.

[12] Van der Weerd W, Timmermans DR, Beaujean DJ, Oudhoff J, van Steenbergen JE. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):575. 575

[13] Casiday RE. Risk and trust in vaccine decision making. Durham Anthropology Journal. 2005;13(1):1-10.

[14] Danchin MH, Costa-Pinto J, Attwell K, et al. Vaccine decision-making begins in pregnancy: Correlation between vaccine concerns, intentions and maternal vaccination with subsequent childhood vaccine uptake. Vaccine. 2018;36(44):6473– 6479.

[15] Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco:John Wiley & Sons; 2008.

[16] Hughes CC, Jones AL, Feemster KA, Fiks AG. HPV vaccine decision making in pediatric primary care: A semi-structured interview study. BMC Pediatrics. 2011;11(1):1– 9.

[17] Jackson C, Cheater FM, Harrison W, et al. Randomised cluster trial to support informed parental decision-making for the MMR vaccine. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):475.

[18] Serpell L, Green J. Parental decision-making in childhood vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24(19):4041–4046.

[19] Sturm LA, Mays RM, Zimet GD. Parental beliefs and decision making about child and adolescent immunization: From polio to sexually transmitted infections. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2005;26(6):441–452.

[20] Dryhurst S, Schneider CR, Kerr J, et al. Risk perceptions of COVID- 19 around the world. Journal of Risk Research. 2020;23(7–8):994–1006.

[21] Hoogink J, Verelst F, Kessels R, et al. Preferential differences in vaccination decisionmaking for oneself or one’s child in The Netherlands: A discrete choice experiment. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):828.

[22] Hobson-West P. Understanding vaccination resistance: Moving beyond risk. Health, Risk & Society. 2003;5(3):273–283.

[23] Freimuth VS, Jamison A, Hancock G, Musa D, Hilyard K, Quinn SC. The role of risk perception in flu vaccine behavior among African-American and white adults in the United States. Risk Analysis. 2017;37(11):2150–2163.

[24] Bond L, Nolan T. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: A qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):943.

[25] Han Q, Zheng B, Cristea M, et al. Trust in government and its associations with health behaviour and prosocial behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine, 1-32. 2020.

[26] Soares P, Rocha JV, Moniz M, et al. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccines. 2021;9(3):300.

[27] Fathimah AF, Al-Islami MF, Gustriani T, et al. Kepatuhan masyarakat terhadap pemerintah selama pandemi: Studi eksplorasi dengan pendekatan psikologi indigenous. Psikobuletin: Buletin Ilmiah Psikologi. 2021;2(1):15–22.