Reflection on Rural Development: Village Fund, Village Tour, and the Covid-19 Pandemic


In 2015 the central government implemented the Village Fund program for all villages in Indonesia. The objective of this program was to accelerate poverty alleviation and promote village independence. One of the development priorities in rural areas is to achieve village independence by developing tourism villages with village funds. Meanwhile, at the end of 2019, the Covid-19 pandemic that broke out in Indonesia led to an increase in poverty in rural areas. This increased the need for assistance from village funds to help improve the welfare of the poor. In this study, the Giri Manik Village was examined because it was one of the national pilot villages in developing a tourist village using village funds. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and documentation analysis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that developing the physical infrastructure of tourist villages does increase the income of the poor through cash-intensive labour. However, the benefits of tourist villages are largely enjoyed by the village elite.

Keywords: village funds, tourist village, village elite, poor people, the Covid-19 pandemic

[1] Kompas. 20.168 desa di Indonesia masih tertinggal [Internet]. Kompas; 20/10/2015. Available from:

[2] Badan Pusat Statstik (BPS). Persentase penduduk miskin maret 2015 mencapai 11,22 persen [Internet]. 15/09/2015. Available from: 09/15/1158/persentase-penduduk-miskin-maret-2015-mencapai-11-22-persen.html#:~:text= Pada{%}20bulan{%}20Maret{%}202015{%}2C{%}20jumlah,(10{%}2C96{%}20persen).

[3] Kompas. Total dana desa 2019-2024 Rp 400 triliun [Internet]. Kompas; 26/02/2019. Available from: desa-2019-2024-rp-400- triliun?page=all

[4] Katadata. Sri Mulyani paparkan hasil penyaluran dana desa selama 4 tahun [Internet]. Katadata; 26/01/2019. Available from:

[5] Widianto, B. Buletin TNP2K. 2020;1(38).

[6] Kemendesa. Tercatat sebanyak 61 persen desa telah memiliki BUM desa [Internet]. Kemendesa; 26/04/2019. Available from: persen-desa-telah-memiliki-bumdes?page=home

[7] Republika. Pariwisata bantu bangun perekonomian desa [Internet]. Republika; 01/06/2019. Available from: pariwisata-bantu-bangun-perekonomian-desa

[8] Republika. Mendes: Dana desa 2020 difokuskan untuk pengembangan wisata [Internet]. Republika; 17/08/ 2020. Available from: difokuskan-untuk-pengembangan-wisata

[9] Republika. Covid-19 dan kemiskinan [Internet]. Republika; 16/07/2020. Available from: https://www.

[10] Kompas. Dampak Covid-19, penduduk miskin naik jadi 26,42 juta orang [Internet]. Kompas; 15/07/2020. Available from:

[11] North DC. Institutions. Journal of economic perspectives. 1991;5(1):97–112.

[12] Arham MA, Payu BR. Village fund transfer and rural poverty in Indonesia. Economics Development Analysis Journal. 2019;8(4):324–334.

[13] Lewis BD. Decentralising to villages in Indonesia: Money (and other) mistakes. Public Administration and Development. 2015;35(5):347–359.

[14] Harun H, Graham P, Kamase HP, Mir M. A critical analysis of the impacts of financial literacy and NPM on Village Funds Initiative in Indonesia. International Journal of Public Administration. 2020: 44 (4) 1–10.

[15] Hartanti N, Yuhertiana I. Transparency, accountability and responsibility in an Indonesia village financial management. Public Policy And Adminsitration Research. 2018;8(3):7177.

[16] Hermawan E. Community empowerment through management of village funds allocation in Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Society. 2019;1(3):67–79.

[17] Bernstein H. Dinamika kelas dalam perubahan agraria. Insist Press; 2015.

[18] The SMERU Research Institute. Dinamika ketimpangan dan penghidupan di perdesaan Indonesia, 2006–2016 [Internet]. The SMERU Research Institute; 18/11/2018. Available from:{%}E2{%}80{%}932016

[19] Imawan SA, Purwanto EA. Governing village fund in Indonesia: Is it eradicating poverty? Policy & Governance Review. 2020;4(1):14–27.

[20] Moleong LJ. Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. PT Remaja Rosdakarya; 2002.

[21] Yin RK. Studi kasus: Desain dan metode. Raja Grafindo Persada; 2012.

[22] Bungin B. Analisis data penelitian kualitatif: Pemahaman filosofis dan metodologis ke arah penguasaan model aplikasi. PT Raja Grafindo Persada; 2006.

[23] Miles MB, Huberman MA. An expended sourcebook: Qualitative data analysis. 2nd edition. SAGE Publication; 1994.

[24] Haryanto. Konfigurasi elit dan demokrasi: Aktor, sumber daya, dan strategi kontestasi. PRISMA. 2017;36(1):22–41.