Coping Strategies of Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia in Malang Districts
Schizophrenia is a disease that not only puts a burden on the afflicted individual but also poses a significant challenge to their caregivers. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use coping strategies to deal with these struggles. This study aimed to identify coping strategies used by family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. This was a descriptive correlational study. Participants were 57 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia who were referred to the general hospital in Malang Districts. They were selected through a purposive sampling method. The data collection tools were demographic and brief cope (BC). The scores of family caregivers using different types of coping strategies were: Self Direction 41.23%, Active Coping 85.75%, Denial 26.32%, Use of Emotional Support 89.25%, Use of Instrumental Support 96.49%, Behavioral Disengagement 35.09%, Venting 28.95%, Positive Reframing 95.18%, Planning 95.18%, Humor 95.18%, Acceptance 94.30%, Religion 91.45%, Self-Blaming 26.54%. The results showed that the most used adaptive coping strategy was instrumental support. Family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia have used adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Mental health professionals should make a program that supports family caregivers in making adaptive coping strategies.
Keywords: caregivers, family, schizophrenia
 Rao P, Grover S, Chakrabarti S. Coping with caregiving stress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Dec;54( July):102219.
 Janah M, Hargiana G. Levels of stress and coping strategies in family caregivers who treat schizophrenic patients with risk of violent behavior. J Public Health Res. 2021 May;10(1_suppl s1):jphr.2021.2404.
 Stuart GW. Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing (tenth). St. Louis Elsevier Mosby; 2013.
 Kesehatan RI. Hasil Utama RISKESDAS 2018. 2018.
 Hegde A, Chakrabarti S, Grover S. Caregiver distress in schizophrenia and mood disorders: the role of illness-related stressors and caregiver-related factors. Nord J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan;73(1):64–72.
 Das S, Punnoose VP, Doval N, Nair VY. Spirituality, religiousness and coping in patients with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Jul;265(April):238–43.
 Yee CI, Gupta T, Mittal VA, Haase CM. Coping with family stress in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2020 Feb;216:222–8.
 González-Pinto A, Ruiz de Azúa S, Ibáñez B, Otero-Cuesta S, Castro-Fornieles J, Graell-Berna M, et al. Can positive family factors be protective against the development of psychosis? Psychiatry Res. 2011 Mar;186(1):28–33.
 Dillinger RL, Kersun JM. Caring for caregivers: Understanding and meeting their needs in coping with first episode psychosis. 2019; 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.12870.
 Gupta M, Bowie CR. Family cohesion and flexibility in early episode psychosis. Early Interv Psychiatry. 2018 Oct;12(5):886–92.
 O’Brien MP, Zinberg JL, Ho L, Rudd A, Kopelowicz A, Daley M, et al. Family problem-solving interactions and 6-month symptomatic and functional outcomes in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis and with recent onset psychotic symptoms: a longitudinal study. Schizophr Res. 2009 Feb;107(2-3):198–205.
 Zhou Z, Wang Y, Feng P, Li T, Tebes JK, Luan R, et al. Associations of Caregiving Knowledge and Skills With Caregiver Burden, Psychological Well-Being, and Coping Styles Among Primary Family Caregivers of People Living With Schizophrenia in China. Front Psychiatry. 2021 May;12(May):631420.
 Wu C, Liu Y, Ma S, Jing G, Zhou W, Qu L, et al. The mediating roles of coping styles and resilience in the relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic growth among primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2021 Jan;21(1):58.
 Mehra A, Kumar A, Grover S, Chakrabarti S, Avasthi A. Relationship of stigma with burden and coping among caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders. Indian J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;36(1):11.
 Fitryasari R, Yusuf A, Nursalam, Tristiana RD, Nihayati HE. Family members’ perspective of family Resilience’s risk factors in taking care of schizophrenia patients. Int J Nurs Sci. 2018 Jul;5(3):255–61.