Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes Mellitus at the University of Muhammadiyah Malang General Hospital
The number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in East Java is 590,531 (9,41% of total national confirmed cases)\. The death toll in the province is 31,774. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can cause systemic complications such that COVID-19 patients with DM have a high risk of serious illness and mortality. The characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM at the University of Muhammadiyah Malang General Hospital have never been reported before. Data were taken from medical records at the University of Muhammadiyah Malang General Hospital. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was obtained from a positive PCR swab. DM diagnosis was made by studying the patient history of DM or Random Blood Glucose (RBG) >200 mg/dL or HbA1c >7% sampling. Characteristics of the patients were age, gender, length of treatment, history of DM, and adherence to DM control. The supporting examinations were leukocytes, platelets, O2 saturation, RBG, HbA1c, CRP, and D-dimer, which were grouped into two groups: recovered and dead. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 28. COVID-19 patients with DM from June 2020 to May 2021 were 206 (23.09%) out of 892 confirmed COVID-19. The majority of cases occurred in men (51.5%) and occurred in the age range of 51-60 years (38.3%). The number of patients who died was 38 (18.4%). The average platelet value was 286,191, the average leukocyte value was 7804, the average oxygen saturation was 90%, the average HbA1c value was 9.4%, the average CRP value was 68.99mg/L, and the average D-dimer value is 13,39ng/mL There was a significant difference in oxygen saturation and D-Dimer between recovered and dead patients. There were no significant differences in the results of other investigations.
Keywords: COVID-19, DM, mortality, University of Muhammadiyah Malang General Hospital
 Zhou W, Ye S, Wang W, Li S, Hu Q. Clinical Features of COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes and Secondary Hyperglycemia. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020(Dm).
 Wu SY, Yau HS, Yu MY, Tsang HF, Chan LW, Cho WC, et al. The diagnostic methods in the COVID-19 pandemic, today and in the future [Internet]. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2020 Sep;20(9):985–93.
 KEMENKES. Media Informasi Resmi Terkini Penyakit Infeksi Emerging COVID-19 [Internet]. 2022. Available from: https://infeksiemerging.kemkes.go.id/dashboard/covid-19
 Provinsi JDI. Info Covid-19 Jawa Timur [Internet]. 2022. Available from: https://infocovid19.jatimprov.go.id/
 Ozder A. A novel indicator predicts 2019 novel coronavirus infection in subjects with diabetes. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108294.
 PERKENI. Pedoman Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 Dewasa di Indonesia 2019. 2019. Available from: https://pbperkeni.or.id/wpcontent/ uploads/2020/07/Pedoman-Pengelolaan-DM-Tipe-2-Dewasa-di-IndonesiaeBook- PDF-1.pdf
 Gupta R, Hussain A, Misra A. Diabetes and COVID-19: evidence, current status and unanswered research questions [Internet]. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Jun;74(6):864–70.
 Huang I, Lim MA, Pranata R. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia - A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(4):395–403.
 Matteo A, Maria CC, Michele M, Laura M, Alberto CSDP, Lancet. COVID-19 in people with diabetes: understanding the reasons for worse outcomes. 2020;782–92.
 Hussain A, Bhowmik B, do Vale Moreira NC. COVID-19 and diabetes: knowledge in progress [Internet]. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Apr;162:108142.
 Poon TC, Pang RT, Chan KC, Lee NL, Chiu RW, Tong YK, et al. Proteomic analysis reveals platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin as prognostic markers in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Electrophoresis. 2012 Jul;33(12):1894–900.
 Pilaczyńska-Cemel M, Gołda R, Dąbrowska A, Przybylski G. Analysis of the level of selected parameters of inflammation, circulating immune complexes, and related indicators (neutrophil/lymphocyte, platelet/lymphocyte, CRP/CIC) in patients with obstructive diseases. Cent Eur J Immunol. 2019;44(3):292–8.
 Konyala V, Bhat R. The Mystery of Hypoxia in COVID-19. Int J Surg Med. 2020;2(0):1.
 Mejía F, Medina C, Cornejo E, Morello E, Vásquez S, Alave J, et al. Oxygen saturation as a predictor of mortality in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 in a public hospital in Lima, Peru. PLoS One. 2020;15:1–12.
 Xie J, Covassin N, Fan Z, Singh P, Gao W, Li G, et al. Association Between Hypoxemia and Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 [Internet]. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Jun;95(6):1138–47.
 Raoufi M, Khalili S, Mansouri M, Mahdavi A, Khalili N. Well-controlled vs poorly controlled diabetes in patients with COVID-19: are there any differences in outcomes and imaging findings? [Internet]. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Aug;166:108286.
 Albulescu R, Dima SO, Florea IR, Lixandru D, Serban AM, Aspritoiu VM, et al. COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: unraveling the hypotheses that worsen the prognosis (Review) [Review]. Exp Ther Med. 2020 Dec;20(6):194.
 Lim S, Bae JH, Kwon HS, Nauck MA. COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: from pathophysiology to clinical management [Internet]. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2021 Jan;17(1):11–30.
 Erener S. Diabetes, infection risk and COVID-19 [Internet]. Mol Metab. 2020 Sep;39( June):101044.
 Wool GD, Miller JL. The Impact of COVID-19 Disease on Platelets and Coagulation. Pathobiology. 2021;88(1):15–27.
 Soni M, Gopalakrishnan R, Vaishya R, Prabu P. D-dimer level is a useful predictor for mortality in patients with COVID-19: Analysis of 483 cases. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020 Nov-Dec;14(6):2245-2249. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.11.007.2020.
 Mishra Y, Kumar B, Sourabh S. Relation of D-dimer levels of COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.09.035.