Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Piper betle Extract Niosome Serum Gel and Its Irritation Effects
Masks are personal protective equipment essential for COVID-19 prevention, but for the use of masks has led to an increase in the severity of both acne (maskne) and rosacea (mask rosacea). Long-time mask-wearing can increase acne’s flare by modifying the cutaneous facial microenvironment and triggering facial dermatoses. To minimize this, the skin needs to be protected by using an antibacterial product. This study aimed to develop and determine the antibacterial effect of Piper betle extract in niosome serum gel and its irritation effect. 5% Piper betle extract was formulated into a niosome system and incorporated into the serum gel with varying concentrations of 30%, 40%, and 50%. The niosome system was characterized by particle size, Polydispersity Index (PI), zeta potential, and pH value, and then evaluated physicochemical properties for niosome serum gel preparation. Further, the antibacterial effect against Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis was tested using a well-diffusion test. The preparation stability was evaluated using freeze-thaw methods, and the irritation test was assessed using the HET-CAM (Hen’s Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane) method. The results showed that the preparation has a good physicochemical, while the best inhibition zone diameter was 7,29±0,21; 7,77±0,12; and 8,24±0,40, against P.acne, respectively. However, the results of the stability test of the preparation showed a significant change in the pH but had no irritation effect on CAM. It can concluded that the niosome serum gel of Piper betle extract has a potential antibacterial impact for acne, especially against P. acne.
Keywords: Piper betle, Niosome serum gel, antibacterial effect, stability, irritation effect
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