The Effect of House Environmental Factors on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Toddlers


Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract and it is a leading cause of death in toddlers around the world, especially in developing countries including Indonesia. Environmental factors have an important role in the incidence of pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the house environmental factors that influence the incidence of pneumonia in children < 60 months in the working area of Public Health Center P. This study used a cross-sectional design that involved 114 children (aged < 60 months) with their mothers. We conducted interviews and observations, and filled in the 9 checklists of the house environment: floor type, wall type, ventilation, density, cooking fuel, smoking habit, humidity, light intensity, and temperature. The data were analyzed with the Chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed that the factors of the house enviroment affecting pneumonia in children < 60 months were light intensity (p = 0.001; OR = 5.032; 95% CI = 1.94, 13.046), humidity (p = 0.003; OR = 6.98; 95% CI = 1.91, 25.421) and density (p = 0.019; OR = 3.140; 95% CI = 1.21, 8.154). Preventive programs from health workers are very important (i.e., counseling and health education). Support from local government and the community is necessary to promote healthy households.

Keywords: pneumonia, children < 60 months, house environment

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