Analysis of Body Composition Factors That Affect Trunk Muscle Mass in Late Adolescence


Adolescent nutritional status can be assessed by body mass index (BMI). BMI is related to muscle mass. It is associated with the overall body composition such as muscle mass, bone mass, and fat mass, and is packaged in a formula involving weight (BW) and height. Body composition can be different for each individual. The development of muscle mass is usually followed by an increase in muscle strength in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the body composition factors that affect trunk muscle mass in late adolescent males and females. This was an analytical observational study with a cross-sectional approach involving 50 male and female respondents, respectively, who were students at Muhammadiyah Malang University, selected using purposive sampling. The data recorded were height, BW, BMI and trunk muscle mass. The data obtained were analyzed using bivariate analysis through the Pearson correlation test (BW) and ANOVA (BMI), while multivariate analysis was conducted with linear regression. A significant correlation was found between BW and trunk muscle mass in the late adolescent males (p < 0.05, correlation coefficient = 0.939) and females (p < 0.05, correlation coefficient = 0.698). The findings also showed that for late adolescent males, the coefficient score for BW and BMI was 0.920, while for the late adolescent females it was 0.499. Weight and BMI had a correlation with muscle mass with a contribution of 92% in the males and 49% in the females.

Keywords: muscle mass, body height, body weight, adolescent, late adolescent

[1] Gomez J, Silva AM, Mialich MS, Faccioli Sicchieri JM, Afonso A, Junior J, et al. 1-10 analysis of body composition: a critical review of the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Internet]. 2014;2(1):1–10. Available. from:

[2] Verbrugge SA, Schönfelder M, Becker L, Nezhad FY, de Angelis MH, Wackerhage H. Genes whose gain or loss-of-function increases skeletal muscle mass in mice: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Physiology. Frontiers Media S.A.; 2018.

[3] Brener A, Waksman Y, Rosenfeld T, Levy S, Peleg I, Raviv A, et al. The heritability of body composition. BMC Pediatr. 2021 May;21(1):225.

[4] Jung S, Park J, Seo YG. Relationship between arm-to-leg and limbs-to-trunk body composition ratio and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug;11(1):17414.

[5] Dewi Suhada P, Widyastuti N, Candra A, Syauqy A. Korelasi Aktivitas Fisik dan Persen Lemak Tubuh dengan Indikator Sarkopenia Correlation Physical Activity and Body Fat Percentage with The Indicators of Sarkopenia. 2021;15–22.

[6] Goldspink G. Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Knight J, editor. Journal of Aging Research [Internet]. 2012;2012:158279. Available from:

[7] Spano MA, Kruskall LJ, Thomas DT. Nutrition for sport, exercise, and health. Spano Sports Nutrition Consulting, LLC.

[8] He X, Li Z, Tang X, Zhang L, Wang L, He Y, et al. Age- and sex-related differences in body composition in healthy subjects aged 18 to 82 years. Medicine (United States). 2018 Jun 1;97(25).